totalecontrole.punt.nl
Abonneren
Abonneer je nu voor nieuwe artikelen op deze website!
Laatste artikelen

U wordt constant gecontroleerd: privacy bestaat niet meer

donderdag 23 mei 2013 om 06u56

De Liga voor Mensenrechten reikt op 30 mei 2013 de Big Brother Award uit aan 'de grootste privacyschender'. “De overheid negeert de privacy niet, voor haar bestáát privacy gewoon niet meer”, zegt advocaat Raf Jespers.

Camerabewaking©  AFP

Camera's op elke straathoek, de uitbreiding van de GAS-boetes, nummerplaatherkenning en telecombedrijven die de gebruikersgegevens moeten bijhouden. Het zijn allemaal maatregelen die broodnodig zijn om de veiligheid van de burger te garanderen. Raf Jespers, advocaat, al dertig jaar actief in het strafrecht en lid van de Liga voor Mensenrechten, denkt er het zijne van.
Reacties van middenveldorganisaties of individuen tegen de uitbreiding van controlemaatregelen lijken vaak een maat voor niets. “Maar ik ga niet mee in het verhaal dat de burger zich niets meer aantrekt van zijn privacy”, nuanceert Jespers. “Integendeel, er is minstens een onderhuids gevoel van bekommernis tegen de inmenging van de overheid en bedrijven.”
1984 Als het gaat om privacy en controle wordt er niet zelden verwezen naar het beroemde boek '1984' van George Orwell. “De drie belangrijkste evoluties heeft Orwell inderdaad voorspeld”, bevestigt Jespers. “De technologische en digitale revolutie die het mogelijk maakt om, voor het eerst in de geschiedenis, iedereen permanent te controleren. Daarna was er 9/11 dat een politiek klimaat schiep om maatregelen door te voeren die daarvoor ondenkbaar waren. En ten slotte is er Europa dat de besluitvorming nog verder van de bevolking wegtrekt.”
Dat klinkt allemaal als 'morele paniek', al nuanceert Jespers ook deze stelling. “Men heeft inderdaad van de gelegenheid gebruikgemaakt. De overheid brengt camera's, nummerplaatherkenning en GAS-boetes aan de man onder het mom van veiligheid. En dat werkt”, aldus de advocaat. “Maar dat kan ik de burger niet verwijten. Je zou kunnen zeggen: de overheid negeert of miskent de privacy. Maar het is erger dan dat. Voor haar bestaat de privacy gewoon niet meer.”
Verantwoordelijkheden op hun kop
Personen die zich verzetten tegen het gebruik van camera's, e-mailcontrole, de dataretentierichtlijn (Europese richtlijn die providers verplicht gebruikersgegevens bij te houden, red.) en databanken, hebben iets te verbergen. Dat zeggen althans de voorstanders. “Maar het zet de verantwoordelijkheden op hun kop”, zegt Jespers. “De burger moet niet verantwoorden waarom hij niet gezien of gecontroleerd wil worden. Het rechtelijk principe luidt dat de overheid moet verantwoorden waarom ze de burger controleert. Trouwens, tenzij men een heilige is, heeft iedereen wel iets te verbergen.”
Absurd en duur
Is er eigenlijk wel een alternatief voor de moderne, technologische controlemaatregelen? “Er hangen in alle bussen, metro's en trams camera's. Totaal absurd en enorm duur”, aldus Jespers. “Hang camera's gerichter op, bijvoorbeeld op risicolijnen op risicomomenten. Nu is er zelfs camerabewaking op lijnen waar sinds de afschaffing van de paardentram nooit een echt probleem is geweest.”
Naast een efficiënter beleid, pleit de advocaat ook voor een menselijke oplossing. “Haal camera's weg in het openbaar vervoer en zet er een extra man bij. Die kan tenminste praten met de mensen en niet enkel registreren”, meent Jespers. “Maar vaak wordt de hele industrie achter de camera's en de software vergeten. Mechelen investeert tienduizenden euro's in nummerplaatherkenning, terwijl de stad met een schuld van 190 miljoen euro kampt.”
Voorwaarden
Volgens vele politici vraagt de bevolking om meer controle. Privacy is trouwens geen absoluut recht, aangezien het kan beperkt worden in uitzonderlijke gevallen. Denk daarbij aan een huiszoeking in het kader van een strafrechtelijk onderzoek. “Maar die uitzonderingen zijn wél onderhevig aan voorwaarden”, maakt Jespers duidelijk. “Zijn ze noodzakelijk in een democratische samenleving? Zijn ze proportioneel? Kan men hetzelfde resultaat niet bereiken op een andere manier? Met andere woorden: moeten alle nummerplaten rond Mechelen echt gecontroleerd worden? Volstaat een extra controleur op de bus niet om de veiligheid te garanderen?”
Deze voorwaarden lijken zelden in beschouwing genomen te worden. “Op het politieke niveau kent men onvoldoende de problematiek”, zegt Jespers. “Het zou de evidentie moeten zijn om terug te vallen op de fundamentele rechten en de burgerrechten. Maar politici zijn dermate met dagjespolitiek bezig dat ze die burgerrechten zelfs niet in het achterhoofd hebben. Het bewustzijn bij het doorsnee gemeenteraadslid is hemeltergend”, vindt Jespers.
Repressieve mentaliteit Extra verontrustend is dat de politieke top wél weet waar ze mee bezig is, maar toch op hetzelfde elan verdergaat. “De progressieve tijdsgeest van de jaren 50, 60 en 70 is omgeslagen naar een repressieve mentaliteit. De burger wordt gewantrouwd. Waarom? Omdat die van alles uitspookt? Of omdat de overheid vreest dat hij vroeg of laat op zijn achterste poten zal staan?”, vraagt Jespers zich af.
“Het gemak waarmee men alles doorvoert, is hallucinant. De privacy is een van de onderdelen van 'de moederkoek van de vrijheden', zoals de vrije meningsuiting. De progressieve evolutie van na WOII is totaal vergeten. Dat is een van mijn grote zorgen. Als men privacy niet meer als basis voor het beleid neemt, dan vrees ik het ergste.”
Gunther Malin / StampMedia

http://www.knack.be/nieuws/belgie/u-wordt-constant-gecontroleerd-privacy-bestaat-niet-meer/article-4000309828750.htm










Reacties
What does the future have in store for radical body modification?

 George Dvorsky

We've been modifying our appearance ever since we first figured out how to pierce skin with wood and bones. Today, our tendency to twist, morph, and expand upon our naturally given forms is very much alive and well, one that's been best expressed by the radical body modification community. And now, owing to the onset of new technologies, this subculture is ready to take body modification to further extremes.

Top image courtesy of Rachel Haywire, organizer of Extreme Futurist Fest 2012. All inset images courtesy BMEzine.com LLC.

To get a better sense of where body modification is headed, we spoke to Shannon Larratt, founder of the BME body modification website. Larratt is no stranger to cutting edge modifications; over the last twenty years he's had a wide set of piercings, scars, tattoos, implants, and surgical modifications. He's designed much of the jewelry and equipment involved, including the procedures themselves. Larratt is also the inventor of the very first ink-injection procedure for eyeball tattooing.

After speaking with Larratt, it became obvious that the future is very bright (and weird) for the body modders — one that aligns very closely to the techno-savvy biohacker and transhumanist communities.

What connection does the body modification community have with the nascent sub-culture of biohackers?

Biohackers aren't different from body modifiers at all — they are a type of body modifier. Body modification is the catch-all term, and inside that are many smaller and often overlapping subcultures. Tattooing is, of course, the largest and best known subcommunity inside body modification, and historically it has made the biggest impact to date on the human experience. But the biohacker subculture is just as valid — and I wouldn't be surprised if we look again in a thousand years, we could be saying that it was the biohackers who set in motion the evolutionary step that made us more than Homo sapiens. That said, I will say that one of the things that makes biohackers unique from other body modification communities is that they are often more concerned with function than with form. I want to be clear that I am over-simplifying to an almost offensive degree, but tattooing for example, is all form. With the exception of shamanic tattooing that has a spiritual basis, tattooing is an aesthetic practice. Biohacking on the other hand is more concerned with the functional change or improvement the modification will give — they are the transhumanists of the body modification world. They seek to make themselves more than what they were. Not just prettier. But something new or expanded.

 Do you know of any mods that would be of interest to the biohacker community, or technophiles in general?

Full size   One particular modification that is catching the attention of the biohacker and maker communities is RFID implants. These are the tiny RFID chips encased in a tiny glass sheath that do nothing more than bounce back an ID number — the same thing that a vet might implant in your dog in case they get lost. A small handful of people have built clever systems that use these implanted RFID chips to do things like create keyless access systems to their car, house, or computers.

However, from my point of view this falls into the "stupid human trick" category — a lot of fun, but not really that useful. Ignoring security debates about RFIDs — both how easy they are to hack and clone, and the fact that this turns you into a trackable individual — this type of thing is much better accomplished by fingerprint scanners and other biometric tools that don't require surgery. For me where things get much more exciting is when people start implanting live electronics into their bodies. The medical community has of course been implanting electronics into people for a long time, pacemakers and cochlear implants being some of the most well-known examples, but the body modification and biohacker community is just now starting to play catch-up.

Can you tell us more about implantable electronics?

These days a growing number of people in the body modification community have extensive experience with complex implant manufacturing. The number of people interested in implants has grown large enough to include a great many people who have the technical skills required to design and build the electronics required. All the pieces are in place to do some really fun things. For example, I've always wanted to have an implanted wristwatch. Long ago I was a huge fan of LED and other futuristic watches, collecting the sort of stuff made by TokyoFlash.

Making a wristwatch implant would actually be quite simple. The electronics need to be as small as possible of course. Even though implants can be quite large (a single double-D breast implant has more volume than many laptop computers at this point), if the implant is kept thin it will be inconspicuous, perhaps even undetectable without touching it. So the wristwatch would be built with surface mount components in a tight package. The LEDs would easily be visible through the skin — it's quite possible that some small backlit panels could be visible through the skin but simple round or bar-shaped LEDs would be my choice for a watch. One could do a numeric display, a geeky binary display, or even just use a single light and flash the time with morse code. You're probably not going to leave the light on all the time in order to preserve the battery, but triggering could be accomplished in many ways. An accelerometer could be used to trigger it with a specific arm motion, a pressure switch could respond to touch, or in my case, or a magnetic switch could respond to me waving my finger over it — there are many options, but whatever is chosen would have to be versatile enough to also allow the time to be set. Finally — and this is the biggest issue — there's power. You could have yourself cut open have the battery replaced — but there's no need for that. Inductive charging is easy to build, and wireless chargers are commonplace these days — personally I would include such a circuit.

 Wait a minute, won't the body reject these foreign substances? Well, once the electronics are built, they definitely need to be made biocompatible. If you just cut a hole in yourself and stick in a circuit board, neither your body or your electronics are going to thank you. More importantly, both your body and your electronics will be in serious need of repair if you do this! As with neodymium magnets, which break down when they come in contact with the body, the solution is to not let them come in contact. This is done by coating the magnet or the electronics in a layer of biologically inert silicone. It is of utmost importance that this step be done right, because the smallest point of access between the body and the electronics and the project will fail — possibly with medically disastrous consequences. This step needs to be done by someone with extensive experience with both mould making for implants with encased materials body modification. I can not emphasize enough that this is the most important step. If you screw up building the electronics, you've simply wasted your time. But if you screw up the silicone, you're risking your health. All the pieces are in place for people to start getting some very exciting live electronics implanted. Everything is ready — all it takes is for an electronics maker to team up with an implant maker, and the snowball starts rolling. On a technical level, we are already capable of doing things like the implanted cell phones in the recent Total Recall movie. The future is here, just behind the bedroom door, waiting for us. All we have to do is step through, get in bed, and start.
 
 Sure, this sounds great — but what about the risks?  Yes, of course, all of this is not without risk — significant risk perhaps. If a battery were to leak — let's not even think about exploding — and tear through the silicone somehow, noxious chemicals could be released into the body. Even in the best case scenario, the implant will have to eventually be removed, probably because it stopped working — to say nothing of obsolescence. It's not going to be as fun to upgrade your cellphone every nine months if you have to cut it out of your hand first. In the early days there will be a lot of problems so doing as much testing as possible is important. For example, after the implant is built, letting it sit in warm body temperature salt water for a few weeks to make sure the implant is solid and that the electronics can handle the temperature and environment. But even with the best testing, for the first few years, the guinea pigs need to know that things will go wrong and that they're treading unknown ground. For me, and I'm sure many other pioneers, this has always been part of the fun. Exploring dangerous new territory s a wonderful adventure, if a foolhardy one that many people don't understand the joy of and ridicule.
 
 What about magnetic implants — tiny neodymium magnets that are implanted in the finger tip? Is this still a popular add-on? 
  Absolutely — magnetic implants have actually become quite common, and I would make a very rough guess that at least a thousand of them have been implanted. They work by creating a haptic interface. The magnet moves or vibrates when it is exposed to magnetic or electromagnetic fields. This can be felt by the same nerves that are used for touch, nerves that are extremely dense and sensitive in the fingertips. They are generally placed slightly to the side of the fingertip rather than centrally in the finger pad so that they don't affect function, and they're quite tiny, having a volume comparable to a grain of uncooked rice. When the magnets move, you are aware of it, and it doesn't take long before this becomes a distinct sensation from touch. It doesn't just feel like having a tiny vibrator inside your finger, even though that's exactly what it is. It's more natural than that. For example, if you are feeling the electromagnetic bubble that comes off of a power transformer, like what your laptop might use, it feels like you're reaching out and touching an invisible bubble. That bubble has form (you can move your hand around to get an idea of the shape) and it has strength (the amount of power dictates how far the magnet is being moved inside your finger) and it even has "colour" (the frequency of the electromagnetic field alters how quickly the magnet vibrates).
 All of this is processed on a subconscious level, and it really is like having a sixth sense. It's hard to describe just how wonderful this is — our world is so rich with electromagnetism. It's such an important part of the modern world, yet most people are blind to it. Sure, you know intellectually that it's there, and you can even detect it with various tools, but it's not the same as actually sensing it. Nor are the tools as fast or convenient.
 Because I can feel the power running through cables (at household voltages anyway), and transformers are easy to detect, there are many times where I've used it to quickly diagnose hardware issues without having to pull out a multimeter. The sensitivity is high enough to detect a spinning hard drive engine through the keyboard of a laptop, or to feel a distributor firing in a car being repaired.
 Of all the body modifications I've had, my magnets may be at the top of my favorites list. They're certainly the most profound in terms of expanding my world. I've had them for a bit over seven years, and I feel like if I were to lose them I would feel blind.
 
 And what do you see happening in the more distant future?

The real holy grail of both biohacking and body modification is of genetically engineering humans and of building new body parts. We make massive strides forward in genetics every year, and we're getting to the point where we can "print out" new organs and body parts on a 3D printer, ready to implant and integrate into the body. These things are incredibly exciting to anyone into body modification — biohackers or not — but I think they will still be some time in arriving, and at least at first will come at a huge financial cost to say nothing of the medical risk. Either way, the human body has a very exciting future before it, both in the short term and in the long term.

However it ends up happening, I have no doubt that a slow merging of human and machine is in our future. Evolution does not move fast enough for our vision and dreams. Humans have reached a point where we are able to control our biological destiny, making us the masters of not just our health, but our morphology. I believe that body modification both prepares us and is an important first step into the undiscovered country. Image of subdermal tattoo via GearFuse. Banner and bottom image: Rachel Haywire. All other images courtesy BMEzine.com LLC.

 

Lees meer...

Europees Hof van Justitie oordeelt over opslag vingerafdrukken

Datum: 2 oktober 2012 14:59
Door: Henri (Alphen aan den Rijn)

Het Europees Hof van Justitie moet gaan oordelen of de opslag van vingerafdrukken in paspoorten en identiteitskaarten in strijd is met het recht op privacy. De Afdeling bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State (de hoogste bestuursrechter in Nederland) heeft daartoe vier prejudiciële vragen gesteld aan het Europees Hof in Luxemburg. Met een prejudiciële vraag wordt gevraagd om uitleg van het recht van de Europese Unie.
Het betreft een aantal zaken waarin burgemeesters van steden een aanvraag voor een paspoort of id-kaart niet in behandeling hebben genomen omdat de aanvragers weigerden vingerafdrukken af te geven. De Europese Unie verplicht lidstaten tot de opslag van vingerafdrukken in het paspoort en identiteitsbewijs. De Raad van State wil nu van het Hof in Luxemburg weten of de opslag volgens hem in strijd is met het recht op privacy.

Het duurt ongeveer een jaar tot anderhalf jaar voordat het Hof uitspraak heeft gedaan. Daarna zal de Raad van State de behandeling voortzetten en uiteindelijk definitieve uitspraken doen in de geschillen tussen de burgemeesters en de vier aanvragers.
Het is sinds 2009 verplicht voor alle Nederlandse gemeenten om vingerafdrukken af te nemen bij de aanvraag van een reisdocument. Twee vingerafdrukken worden in een chip op het document opgeslagen.

Bron: http://www.opslagruimte-nieuws.nl/europees-hof-van-justitie-oordeelt-over-opslag-vingerafdrukken.html

Lees meer...

Raad van State stelt vragen aan Hof van Justitie in Luxemburg over opslag vingerafdrukken in paspoorten en identiteitskaarten

(vrijdag 28 september)

De Afdeling bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State heeft in vier hogerberoepszaken zogenoemde prejudiciële vragen gesteld aan het Hof van Justitie in Luxemburg. Het gaat om zaken waarin de burgemeesters van Den Haag, Nuth, Skarsterlân en Amsterdam een aanvraag voor een paspoort of identiteitskaart niet in behandeling hadden genomen, omdat de aanvragers weigerden de daarvoor verlangde vingerafdrukken af te geven. De Raad van State wil van het Hof in Luxemburg weten of de Europese verordening, die lidstaten van de Europese Unie verplicht tot het opnemen van vingerafdrukken in paspoorten en reisdocumenten, in strijd is met het recht op privacy.

Naar het oordeel van de Raad van State is 'op voorhand niet duidelijk of de beperking van het recht op privacy evenredig is in verhouding tot het belang om misbruik van paspoorten en reisdocumenten te voorkomen'. Daarom heeft de Raad van State besloten prejudiciële vragen te stellen aan het Hof. De Raad van State wil weten of de Europese verordening in strijd is met het recht op privacy. Daarnaast wil de Raad van State weten of de Europese verordening behalve op paspoorten ook van toepassing is op de Nederlandse identiteitskaart. Ten slotte wil de Raad van State duidelijkheid of moet worden gewaarborgd dat de vingerafdrukken niet voor andere doeleinden worden verzameld en gebruikt dan voor de afgifte van een paspoort of identiteitskaart.

De behandeling van de hogerberoepszaken bij de Raad van State wordt geschorst, in afwachting van de antwoorden van het Hof in Luxemburg. Dit duurt naar verwachting ongeveer een jaar tot anderhalf jaar. Daarna zal de Raad van State de behandeling voortzetten en uiteindelijk definitieve uitspraken doen in de geschillen tussen de burgemeesters en de vier aanvragers. De Raad van State heeft het Luxemburgse Hof gevraagd om de vragen gelijktijdig te behandelen met een vraag die een Duitse rechter eerder dit jaar stelde aan het Hof over de geldigheid van deze Europese verordening.

Sinds 2009 staat in de Nederlandse Paspoortwet dat voor het aanvragen van een paspoort of identiteitskaart vingerafdrukken moeten worden afgegeven. Twee vingerafdrukken worden in een chip op het document opgeslagen.

Lees hier de uitspraken met zaaknummers
201205423/1 (Amsterdam), 201110934/1 (Nuth), 201110242/1 (Skarsterlân) en 201105172/1 (Den Haag).

Bron: http://www.raadvanstate.nl/pers/persberichten/persbericht/?pressmessage_id=202

 

Lees meer...
Na optreden CBP wijzigt NS gebruik reisgegevens OV-chipkaart 
CBP-onderzoek naar gegevensverwerking OV-chipkaart voor marketingdoeleinden 
Persbericht, 28 augustus 2012

Het College bescherming persoonsgegevens (CBP) heeft tijdens onderzoek geconstateerd dat NS de wet heeft overtreden bij het gebruik van persoonsgegevens van OV-chipkaarthouders voor marketingdoeleinden. NS heeft naar aanleiding van deze constatering maatregelen getroffen waardoor de overtredingen van de Wet bescherming persoonsgegevens (Wbp) inmiddels zijn beëindigd.
Uit de door het CBP onderzochte verwerkingen van reisgegevens voor marketingdoeleinden bleek dat NS een gedetailleerd beeld van het reisgedrag van de OV-chipkaarthouders vastlegde. NS gebruikte deze gedetailleerde reisgegevens zonder de vereiste toestemming hiervoor van de reizigers. Daarmee leefde het vervoerbedrijf de eerder door het CBP geformuleerde voorwaarden waaronder OV-bedrijven reisgegevens mogen verwerken voor marketingdoeleinden, niet na. NS heeft zich in 2008 aan de uitwerking van de wet in de voorwaarden uitdrukkelijk verbonden.
Uit het onderzoek kwam ook naar voren dat NS persoonsgegevens van anonieme OV-chipkaarthouders verzamelde. Het OV-bedrijf gebruikte namelijk de e-mailadressen van de anonieme OV-chipkaarthouders die hun saldo via de website van NS activeerden voor direct marketingdoeleinden.
 
 
 
Voorwaarden gebruik OV-chipkaartgegevens voor marketing
In 2008 heeft het CBP voorwaarden geformuleerd waaronder persoonsgegevens uit het OV-chipkaartsysteem voor marketingdoeleinden gebruikt mogen worden. Daarmee verschafte het CBP duidelijkheid over wat in dit kader wel en niet mag op basis van de Wbp. NS bleek geen van deze voorwaarden na te leven, zo kwam uit het onderzoek naar voren. Omdat via de OV-chipkaart veel persoonsgegevens worden verzameld is het van groot belang dat reizigers erop kunnen vertrouwen dat dit op een verantwoorde manier gebeurt. De door het CBP gestelde voorwaarden hebben tot doel te voorkomen dat een gedetailleerd beeld van het reisgedrag van reizigers wordt vastgelegd. NS legde juist wel vast wie op welk tijdstip waar heeft gereisd ten behoeve van zijn marketingactiviteiten.
NS heeft naar aanleiding van de eerste onderzoeksbevindingen van het CBP maatregelen getroffen om de overtredingen te beëindigen. Het CBP heeft deze beoordeeld en concludeert dat het vervoerbedrijf inmiddels voldoet aan de voorwaarden.
 
Anonieme OV-chipkaart
Het CBP constateerde tijdens het onderzoek dat NS persoonsgegevens, namelijk het e-mailadres, gebruikte van reizigers met een anonieme OV-chipkaart die het reizen op saldo bij NS via de website activeerden. Als een openbaar vervoerbedrijf een anonieme OV-chipkaart aanbiedt, moet de reiziger er van uit kunnen gaan dat deze OV-chipkaart door het vervoerbedrijf niet herleid kan worden tot de betreffende natuurlijke persoon. Onder anonimiteit wordt immers verstaan dat de gegevens niet tot een persoon herleidbaar zijn. NS heeft naar aanleiding van deze constatering van het CBP de e-mailadressen vernietigd en heeft aangegeven geen nieuwe e-mailadressen van anonieme OV-chipkaarthouders meer te verzamelen.
z2011-00335
Bron: CPB.nl.
Lees meer...
PM Netanyahu addresses Institute for National Security Studies
 
 
29 May 2012
[Translated from Hebrew]
I would like to speak about the goals of peace, the manner in which to attain it, and above all, the conditions necessary to uphold it. A peace agreement with the Palestinians is necessary first and foremost to prevent a bi-national state. It is preferable to live in peace. Peace is better than any other situation, but we need to prevent a bi-national state, as well as strengthen the future of Israel as a Jewish and democratic country.

We do not want to rule over the Palestinians, nor do we want the Palestinians to be citizens of the State of Israel. That is why three times - in my speech at Bar-Ilan, in my speech in the Knesset and later in my speech at the American Congress - I declared that I support and welcome peace between two nation-states - a demilitarized Palestinian state that recognizes the Jewish state, and Israel, the nation-state of the Jewish people.

I believe there is very broad support among the people for such a peace agreement, one based on mutual respect and security for Israel. By security, I mean substantive security arrangements on the ground that provide a response to the ongoing threats and any new threats that are introduced.

I believe that the unity government under my leadership is an expression of this broad support, and I call again on Mahmoud Abbas not to miss this unique opportunity and give peace a chance. Let me clarify - I have not set any conditions to enter into negotiations. Certainly I will have conditions to conclude negotiations, and so will Mahmoud Abbas. This is natural and it is the reason we conduct negotiations. But this is why I say to Abbas - don't miss out on this opportunity to extend your hand in peace. If I had to say it another way, I would say, "President Abbas, all we are saying is 'give peace a chance'."

This is a real opportunity. It will not necessarily be repeated in general or political history, but it exists now and peace negotiations need two sides. One side is ready and willing. Peace between Israel and the Palestinians is in the clear interest of both peoples, but it must be said clearly that there are things that peace with the Palestinians will not bring. Despite popular opinion, peace with the Palestinians will not ensure regional peace. Tremendous historic forces are working in the area in opposition to regional peace, and they will continue to unsettle our environment. On a day to day basis, they work to destroy the State of Israel and they are interested in undermining any peace agreement - those that have been signed and those that we hope to sign in the future.

These extremist forces are motivated by religious fanaticism and a fundamental objection to Western culture, of which Israel is a clear representative. So far we have been successful in overcoming these and other forces that have opposed our existence. We did so by maintaining our qualitative advantage. Today we face new challenges that obligate us to find new ways of maintaining this advantage. In order to have peace in situations of conflict, a balance of power or excess of power is needed. In our case with regard to the extremist religious fanaticism that is directed at us, we need an excess of power. We must safeguard our advantage in the fields that I will detail later.

There are four threats that challenge the State of Israel today and threaten it and peace. We are prepared to provide a response for each and every one of them. The four threats are nuclear, missiles, cyber and vast weapons reserves that are being stockpiled in our region. There is also a fifth threat that I will discuss later.

As to the nuclear issue, let me address the talks between the superpowers and Iran. Not only do the sanctions need to be harsher, the demands on Iran for which the sanctions are imposed must be strengthened and the powers must insist that Iran fulfill these demands in full. Iran must stop all enrichment of nuclear material; it must remove all materials enriched to date from its territory; and it must dismantle its underground nuclear enrichment plant at Qom. Only a specific Iranian commitment during negotiations to meet all three demands and a clear confirmation that they have been executed can stop Iran's nuclear plan. This should be the goal of the negotiations. But I must say regretfully that this is not what is asked of Iran today.

To date, there have been several rounds of talks in which the Iranians were required to stop low levels of uranium enrichment, this is to say, to stop enrichment of 3.5%. Even though that is a low level, it is a significant part of the enrichment process needed to prepare fissile material for a bomb. Not only did the Iranians not do this, they continued enriching uranium without interruption and increased their level of enrichment to 20%, and as it has recently become apparent, even higher than that. In other words, they are constantly advancing their nuclear program to create atomic bombs.

One would expect that the powers demand that Iran stop all enrichment in light of its serial violations and in light of the fact that they are currently enriching at a level of 20%, but instead they are reducing their demands. In the first round, they demanded that the Iranians stop the 3.5%, and even that is not happening now. In this round, they are not even insisting that the Iranians stop all enrichment. On the one hand, it is good that they are imposing heavy economic sanctions on Iran. This is a positive and important thing. We asked for it, and I must say with satisfaction that this pressure is being put on Iran. However, on the other hand, these sanctions must be accompanied by the demands I outlined. It is the combination of the two that will lead to the stopping of the Iranian nuclear program. It is very possible that the Iranians will temporarily stop their enrichment at 20%, but that is not enough. The test will be if the Irania! ns will agree to stop all enrichment, remove all enriched material and to dismantle their underground nuclear facility at Qom. This is the test and there is no other.

Regarding the missile threat, from the moment our enemies understood they cannot beat us on the military battlefield, they turned to missile and rocket weapons that they use against our cities and communities. No other country is more threatened by missiles than the State of Israel, and no other country is as advanced in building a missile defense system as Israel.

We employ two kinds of defense. In the field of active defense, we invested in the Iron Dome system and we are expanding its deployment. We appreciate America's important support in this regard. This is in addition to developing new systems - David's Sling and the Arrow missile system for multi-layered defense. With regard to passive defense, we installed sirens across the country and we are preparing a warning system that will directly dial the mobile phones of each and every citizen. There was a trial run of this in Netanya today, and it will not take long before we are able to warn people about the firing of missiles. This will allow us to prevent the entire country from becoming paralyzed and focus on the threatened area.

These passive and active systems - but first and foremost active - not only improve defense, they improve our offensive and deterrence capabilities because they expand our maneuvering space for activating our offensive capabilities. We are not being dragged into unconsidered responses. We have more time, and I think that we use it with great consideration in choosing the appropriate action. The defense systems against the missile threat will be able to do what the separation fence against suicide bombers did. However, I would like to point out something that I say at every opportunity, and I will say it again today - defensive force is not enough. Offensive force is needed to strike at the enemy and deter further action. The combination of offensive and defensive force can prevent war or shorten it.

The third field, the cyber field, also affects the first two threats. It is certainly wrapped up in the nuclear and missile problems. The cyber capability that we are developing increases the State of Israel's defensive capability. In the cyber field, a country's size has little meaning, but there is great meaning to its scientific power, and in that, Israel is blessed. We are investing a great deal of capital in this - human and fiscal capital alike - and I expect that these investments will grow in the coming years.

It must be said also that all advanced, developed countries are currently under threat from cyber attack systems. Because we are one of the most computerized countries in the world, we are especially exposed to cyber attacks, and in order to improve our ability to defend ourselves, this year I established a national cyber headquarters. Like any other matter of importance, I set a goal: that Israel be one of the five leading countries in the cyber field worldwide. I believe we can achieve this goal.

The nuclear, missile and cyber threats are new threats that we are preparing for, but unfortunately there is a fourth threat - an old threat, one that is familiar to the veterans here who served in the IDF and our defense establishment and that is the vast weapons stockpiles in the region. We cannot entirely rule out the possibility that weapons supplied today to other countries in the region will not be used against us in the future. We cannot rule out the possibility that extremist forces will take over regimes that today do not pose a threat to us and that these forces will not use the weapons found there against us. After all, this is not a theoretical matter. It has already happened - quite prominently in Iran - and it can also happen given the tremendous shock our region is experiencing, and it can certainly happen in other places.

This is why maintaining Israel's qualitative advantage is a central component in our national security. It is an issue we discuss constantly with our allies and our friends in the United States, and we will continue to do so.

That is how to deal with the fourth threat, but as I mentioned earlier, there is a fifth threat that can endanger the future of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state. This threat is the breaching of our borders by illegal infiltrators seeking work. At the beginning of this government's term, I already began to deal with this problem. As early as 2005 or 2006, people spoke about it.

Shortly after we withdrew from Gaza, people said that a fence must be built. In 2009, when this government began its work, there was still no fence, not even the beginning of a fence. There was no budget for a fence and there was no agreement about the need for a fence. It was said that a fence would be ineffective, that it would not stop anyone, that it was too expensive, that it was superfluous. When I insisted, people said, "Well then, we'll build two sections." I insisted otherwise. People told me, "But it will cost two billion shekels." I said that we would allocate funds without breaching the budgetary framework as this was a matter of priority. And it is a national priority, because otherwise we will be swamped. We will have not tens of thousands, but rather hundreds of thousands of infiltrators, and our country is too small. Other countries lost control of their borders at costs that they still cannot fully assess, but we know that ! we cannot allow ourselves to do so.

Therefore, less than a year after the government's establishment, we decided to erect the fence, allocate funds for it and complete its construction from Gaza to Eilat. This fence will be completed in several months of extraordinary work. I go down there every few months with my military secretary, Johanan Locker, who played an important role in expediting and pushing the system, but today, the systems is already pushing itself.

My policy with regard to the illegal infiltrators seeking work is clear - first to stop their entry with the fence, while at the same time deporting the infiltrators who are in Israel. We will begin by deporting the South Sudanese infiltrators dependent on the court's approval, which I hope we will receive over the next several days. Later, we will continue with other groups.

It is important to understand that international law makes deportation very difficult. It states that if one wants to return illegal infiltrators to their countries of origin, one needs the approval of the country. If one wants to return them or deport them to a third country, one must obtain the country's approval. In both cases, one must ensure that no harm comes to them; in other words, that the conditions in the country do not threaten their lives. In order to uphold this condition, we are in contact with many countries. It is not a matter that can be resolved overnight, but unlike what I read today, it is also not a problem with no solution and no action to be taken.

It is true that if we had not decided to erect the fence two years ago, then we would not be dealing with 60,000 illegal infiltrators; within several years we would be dealing with 600,000 - the problem would be magnified by a factor of ten. So first of all, we are stopping them, and although it is difficult and it is not a problem that can be solved overnight, we can deport them and we will. Just as we solved other problems, we will solve this problem methodically and responsibly, in accordance with international agreements.

I am aware of the distress suffered by the residents of South Tel Aviv and Eilat. I visited them and spoke with them, and with the residents of Arad and of other communities and cities in Israel suffering from this problem. However, I reiterate my call to public figures and to the residents to show restraint and act responsibly. We are a moral people and we will act accordingly. We denounce violence; we denounce invective; we respect human rights. Refugees have rights and we respect them.

People who do not have the right to be here still have certain rights, and we respect those too, but we will deport them according to the law, responsibly. We will not lose our humanity and we will not deprive anyone of their humanity. However, at the same time, we will not accept a reality in which infiltrators from an entire continent come here en masse to work. We are committed to defending our borders in order to defend the future of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic country.

Ladies and Gentlemen,

There are people who, when they hear about these threats that I outlined, do not think that we should devote most of our efforts to thwarting them. They think that we do not have to concentrate so much effort against a nuclear Iran, or against the missile threat or the cyber threat or the breach of our borders. They claim that if we just sign a peace agreement with the Palestinians, everything will fall into place and that somehow things will work out. I do not share this opinion.

Once people told us that if we only solved the Syria problem everything would work out, do you remember that? That same Syria is currently slaughtering its people with horrible brutality, with, of course, the assistance of Iran and Hizbullah - real assistance, not just political support: assistance in murder. Well, I do not share that opinion. We do not share that opinion about Syria, but we do share the opinion that we need to act simultaneously against the threats, while at the same time trying to advance the peace process with the Palestinians. We strive for peace with our Palestinian neighbors at the same time that we are thwarting the threats against our security. These actions do not conflict. On the contrary, they are complementary.

The great American historian and gifted author Will Durant expressed my approach to ensuring our existence well. In 1968, towards the end of his life he wrote a small book of 100 pages, which he called, The Lessons in History. In it, he wrote, "These faiths and Christianity assured their followers that the good spirit would win in the end, but of this consummation history offers no guarantee. Nature and history do not agree with our conceptions of good or bad; they define good as that which survives, and bad as that which goes under; and the universe has no prejudice." Later on, he writes, "In the present inadequacy of international law and sentiment a nation must be ready at any moment to defend itself and when its essential interests are involved it must be allowed to use any means it considers essential to its survival." He wrote this in 1968.

My friends, I thank you for this opportunity to present you the principles that guide me in ensuring the existence and future of the State of Israel in security and peace.

Lees meer...
Grote controle politie en Belastingdienst ANPR
 
Kampen, 26-05-2012

Vrijdag 25 mei heeft de politie, in samenwerking met de Belastingdienst een controle gehouden op de N50. Er werden ongeveer 250 voertuigen gecontroleerd. Er werd geverbaliseerd voor de volgende overtredingen:

 

Overbelading aaanhangwagen (1x); Geen verzekering (1x); Verlopen APK (1x); Stoppen op de autoweg (1x); Ondeugdelijke/onleesbare kentekenplaat (1x); Gladde banden auto + aanhangwagen (6x); Losse lading/niet vastgezet (2x); Losbreekreminrichting ondeugdelijk/niet aangebracht (3x); Geen rijbewijs (geen B bij E) (2x); Contourverlichting caravan ondeugdelijk (1x); Niet werkende remlichten (1x); Geen kentekenplaat aanhangwagen (1x); Geen deugdelijke bevestiging verlichtingarmatuur

(1x).

 

Voor het niet bij zich hebben van het rijbewijs en/of kentekenbewijs zijn diverse waarschuwingen uitgedeeld. Met betrekking tot de geconstateerde gebreken stond de Wegenwacht paraat, die ter plaatse diverse problemen heeft opgelost danwel de mensen verwezen heeft naar bedrijven,

die het probleem konden oplossen en maakte daarvoor ook direct een afspraak, zodat men direct geholpen kon worden.

 

Via de ANPR werden er duizenden kentekens gecontroleerd, wat resulteerde in 39 beslagen door de Belastingdienst, waarbij 10 auto's direct werden afgevoerd. Verder werd in totaal een bedrag van 53.000 Euro direct betaald door 15 personen.
 
Lees meer...
Minder overvallen door camera's met gezichtsherkenning
null
 
Het aantal overvallen is fors gedaald. Behalve bij de supermarkten en de horeca. Opstelten denkt er nu aan om ook daar meer camera's met gezichtsherkenning in te zetten.

Het aantal overvallen lag de eerste vier maanden van dit jaar 24 procent lager dan in dezelfde periode in 2009, liet demissionair Minister Opstelten weten. Volgens de Raad van Korpschefs is dat het gevolg van een intensief project tegen overvallen, dat twee jaar geleden bij alle korpsen is gestart.

Groot succes
Sinds die tijd wordt er meer gesurveilleerd in winkelgebieden, worden er helikopters ingezet en zijn speciale rechercheteams geformeerd. Maar ook een proef met camera’s met gezichtsherkenning bij een juwelier en een tankstation in Rotterdam is een groot succes gebleken.

Opstelten overweegt nu om het project verder uit te breiden. Hij wil kijken of de camera's met biometrische gezichtsherkenning ook ingezet kunnen worden in de horeca en de supermarkten. Daar is namelijk wel sprake van een stijging van het aantal overvallen.

Gezicht gescand
De pilot in Rotterdam, genaamd Fotoswitch, wordt uitgevoerd door het Hilversumse bedrijf Teleconnect in samenwerking met de politie en het OM. Marcel van Kersbergen, directeur van het bedrijf: "Van elke bezoeker die de winkel wil betreden wordt vooraf het gezicht gescand. Zodra de software een gezicht herkent uit de database krijgt de juwelier een negatief signaal om de deur te openen en blijft de potentiële overvaller letterlijk voor een gesloten deur staan."

Als er toch een overval wordt gepleegd, is er altijd een foto van de dader beschikbaar die gebruikt kan worden voor opsporing en die direct kan worden toegevoegd aan de database. Als de dader het dan nog eens probeert, wordt hij herkend. De kans op nieuwe overvallen wordt daarmee verkleind en de pakkans vergroot.

Niet fopneus-proof
"En het is echt niet alleen geschikt voor juweliers met een 'gesloten deur'-principe. Het kan ook zeker ingezet worden bij supermarkten en de horeca." Maar het systeem is niet feilloos. Zo droegen de overvallers tijdens het tragische incident in Den Haag een fopneus en een fopbril. Van Kersbergen: "De camera is echter niet in staat om complete carnavalsmaskers virtueel af te doen en te zeggen wie daar onder zit. Het is een hulpmiddel geen tovermiddel."
 
Bron: http://www.bnr.nl/programma/bnrzakendoenmet/188582-1205/minder-overvallen-door-camera-s-met-gezichtsherkenning
Lees meer...
Google Wallet: one year later (NFC and RFID)

The rumors and leaks go back a bit further, but it was a year ago today that Google officially revealed its Google Wallet mobile payment service -- a platform that the company is still betting big on, even if it may be slightly reconsidering the way it does business. While it might not have taken off quite as quickly as Google would have liked, the past year has still been a fairly eventful one for the service -- albeit occasionally for reasons the company would prefer you forget -- and the next year proves to be even more challenging as the service faces increased competition. Read on for a look back at how we got here, and what lies ahead for both Google Wallet and mobile payments in general.

The History

Of course, while Wallet is Google's first big push into mobile payments, it is far from the first. Mobile payments have been "the future" of payments for decades now, long before the days of smartphones equipped with NFC (or Near Field Communication). Early attempts in the 1990s from companies like DigiCash focused not on phones, but on standalone "smart cards," which promised better security, no transaction fees and more convenience than traditional credit cards -- one day we would use them not to just pay for items at a store, but from our home computers as well. E-cash for an e-economy.

With the rapid rise of cellphones, though, came a push for mobile commerce, or "m-commerce," an effort that really began to pick up steam in the early 2000s when mobile payments were not just the realm of upstarts, but big players like Nokia (which would continue to push its own efforts throughout the decade). Our phones would be the one device we used for everything: they'd open doors, get us on a bus or subway, and let us pay for anything, anywhere. In many ways, that's still the goal we're working towards, and one that's slowly starting to become a reality.
 
The Launch

The launch of Google Wallet was a typical, modern day tech event. The press assembled on short notice for a presentation filled with slides, demonstrations and much walking back and forth on stage -- partners were trotted out, promises were made and lots of questions were left unanswered. The launch event also marked the start of a very slow rollout for the service itself. Just one phone on one carrier was announced at the event -- the Sprint Nexus S 4G -- and the service launched only in limited trials in New York and San Francisco, with a vague "summer" date given for a broader rollout.

The launch of the service also brought a dispute with PayPal out into the open, with that company filing suit against Google the very day of the event, alleging that former PayPal executive Osama Bedier misappropriated the company's trade secrets in developing Google Wallet. PayPal further alleged that Stephanie Tilenius, also formerly of PayPal, violated the terms of her contract in recruiting Bedier. Google said it would defend itself against those charges at the time, but little has emerged about the lawsuit since, and PayPal itself is continuing to pursue a number of mobile payment initiatives.
 
The Devices

Image

In the past year, the lineup of devices supporting Google Wallet has expanded a bit, but not all that much. In addition to the Nexus S, the Sprint Galaxy Nexus, LG Viper and LG Optimus Elite (also available on Sprint's Virgin Mobile prepaid brand) all support mobile payments with Google Wallet. You can also use the service with an unlocked Galaxy Nexus, albeit only on AT&T and T-Mobile (as Verizon has deemed fit to block it). Key to all of those phones is a built-in NFC chip, which has become the de facto standard for mobile payments in recent years. NFC itself is an extension of RFID technology (Radio-Frequency Identification), which was the basis for a number of earlier mobile payment efforts.

No fewer than 10 Google Wallet-supporting devices in all have been promised for this year -- but, again, Sprint remains the sole carrier (more on what the other big carriers are up to later). There was talk from the launch event of expanding the service through NFC stickers that could be attached to any smartphone, but this hasn't yet panned out.
 
The Partnerships

While it may be a bit short on carriers and phones, Google has fared a bit better when it comes to partners on the financial and retail sides. It's teamed up with MasterCard to allow for payments via hundreds of thousands of PayPass terminals at stores across the United States. There's also no shortage of retailers who have signed on to offer not just mobile payments, but coupons and loyalty credits as well -- Walgreens, Toys R Us, Macy's, The Gap, and Foot Locker, to name a few, with more promised.

Unfortunately, while MasterCard allows the service to be accepted at plenty of retailers, you still need a Citibank MasterCard to get the most out of it. Other cardholders can use the service, but you'll need to regularly top up your Google Wallet account rather than draw funds directly from your credit card. There's no word on any further expansion in that area just yet.
 
The Competition

Google faces a number of challenges on the road to widespread adoption of the service, not the least of which is some increased competition. Its biggest rival by far (at least in the US) is Isis, a joint venture between AT&T, T-Mobile and Verizon that's challenging Google and Sprint head-on -- offering the same contactless payments, coupons and loyalty cards, with an NFC-enabled smartphone handling all of the transactions. Also like Google Wallet, it's starting out slow, with trials in just two cities this summer (Salt Lake City and Austin), and a limited, but growing, number of credit card partners (currently including Chase, Capital One and American Express). Perhaps its biggest advantage over Google Wallet, though, is the promise of far more supported phones (from virtually all of the big manufacturers, Apple aside) on all three of the aforementioned carriers.

The company would also face several challengers if it intends to compete on an international level. A group of the UK's biggest carriers are forming their own Isis-like joint venture, Rogers and CIBC recently announced an initiative of their own in Canada, and various other partnerships and solo efforts are starting to sprout up around the globe before Google even gets its foot in the door.
 
The Future
 
So what will year two of Google Wallet look like? That's still very much a guessing game at this point, with Google itself staying relatively mum on any future plans beyond those aforementioned (but still unspecified) new devices and additional retail partners. The Wall Street Journal did recently report that Google may be considering a shift in strategy, however, with it possibly either sharing revenue with carriers in order to bring more on board or even side-stepping the carriers altogether and instead working directly with retailers to manage transactions. What is clear, though, is that this next year will likely be the most interesting time yet for mobile payments -- an area that, for all its progress, is still really just beginning to get off the ground.
 
Bron: http://www.engadget.com/2012/05/26/google-wallet-one-year-later/
Lees meer...
INTRODUCTION TO RFID
UHF (Ultra High Frequency) RFID Standards and Frequencies

In the UHF (Ultra High Frequency) band, where RFID tags work according to the principles of the electromagnetic coupling, the most popular technology at the moment is the one based on the ISO 18000-6C protocol, best known as EPC Class 1 Gen 2 or for short Gen 2. The EPC Class 1 Gen 2 standard was proposed by the private organization EPCGlobal and then adopted in 2006 as the ISO 18000-6C standard by the International Standards Organization (ISO).

The EPC Class 1 Gen 2 standard was created to address some issues of previous UHF RFID standards conceived for logistics applications (such as the ISO 18000-6a and the ISO 18000-6b). The new standard was developed specifically to track fluxes of goods between different companies and across all world regions with good read performance in environments with a high density of tags.

According to the standard specifications, EPC Class 1 Gen 2 tags have four memory banks: reserved, EPC, TID and user memory. The EPC bank, typically 96 bit in size, is the one that mainly characterizes EPC Gen 2 tags. It allows to univocally identify an enormous number of objects and controls anti-collision and wake-up functions. Since the EPC number is programmed by the user, more and more Gen 2 RFID tags in the market, as well as tags of other technologies, have a unique serial number that is set at the factory by the IC manufacturer and is inalterable in order to make the tag really unique. This feature is particularly important in applications where counterfeiting is an issue.

EPC Gen 2 RFID tags work in the frequency band that goes from the 860 MHz to the 950 MHz, but there are three main frequency sub-bands used in different geographical regions:

- Europe, India, Middle East, Africa: 865-868 MHz (ETSI)

- US (plus South America and some regions of Asia): 902-928 MHz (FCC)

- Japan: 950-956 MHz (JPN)

There are EPC Gen 2 tags that are designed to work well across the entire 860-950 band and others that are optimized to provide the best performance in a specific sub-band.

The majority of EPC Class 1 Gen 2 tags on the market are passive tags, but Gen 2 BAP tags and semi-passive Gen 2 RFID tags are also available.

Passive UHF Gen 2 RFID tags – Common advantages:
- Global functioning.
- Read range from a few centimeters (UHF near field) to more than 10 meters.
- Lower costs of labels in comparison to HF labels in good volumes.
- Good performance in data transmission and in environments with high tag density.

Passive UHF Gen 2 RFID tags – Common disadvantages:
- Difficulties with liquids (absorbing materials) and as well as in proximity to animals and the human body.
- Problems in the presence of metals (reflecting/detuning materials) and when attached to metal surfaces if not specifically designed for this kind of usage.
- Smaller memory sizes in comparison to passive HF RFID tags.

BAP and semi-passive UHF EPC Gen 2 RFID tags – Common advantages in comparison with passive UHF Gen 2 RFID tags:
- They offer longer read ranges (BAP tags, few dozens of meters).
- The battery power helps with liquids.
- Extra sensors (semi-passive RFID tags).

BAP and semi-passive UHF EPC Gen 2 RFID tags – Common disadvantages in comparison with Passive UHF Gen 2 RFID tags:
- Higher costs than “comparable” passive technologies.
- The battery can limit their usage in some extreme environmental conditions.

Thanks to their common characteristics and the wide variety of models designed for specific applications, passive UHF tags are those that can be used in the largest range of applications: retail, pharmaceutical item tracking, books and media management and above all, warehouse management, industrial supply chains and many other applications where long read ranges, resistance to harsh environments and low costs are required.

UHF BAP tags are a good choice when longer read ranger are needed or when the presence of liquids can make it difficult to use passive UHF tags.

Semi-passive UHF tags are used when there is a need for extra sensors in order to measure environmental condition parameters. Their most common application is for temperature monitoring in cold-chain applications.

Another standard that works in the UHF frequency band is the ISO-18000-6b. It is falling into disuse in favor of Gen 2 standard because of the way the memory is organized. ISO-18000-6b RFID tags are not suitable for tracking goods moving from one company to another with high speed read. Nevertheless, they continue to be used in several closed-loop applications where UHF read ranges and great quantity of user memory are required.

Another RFID standard in the UHF frequency band is the ISO-18000-7, an active RFID protocol that works at 433 MHz that is also promoted by the DASH7 Alliance, a consortium that is working to create a new wireless sensor networking technology that has evolved from a combination of existing radio-frequency identification and sensing technologies.

ISO-18000-7 active RFID tags – Common advantages:
- Global functioning.
- Thanks to their working frequency, they have less problems with metals and liquids in comparison to UHF passive RFID tags.
- Long read ranges.
- Low battery consumption for longer durability.

ISO-18000-7 active RFID tags – Common disadvantages:
- As all tags with a battery, ISO-18000-7 RFID tags have higher maintenance costs than “comparable” passive technologies.
- The battery can limit their usage in some extreme environmental conditions.

Like other active RFID tags that work at higher frequencies (usually at 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz) and are based on proprietary protocols, ISO 18000-7 RFID tags are used in indoor and outdoor Real Time Location Systems, in applications where long read ranges are required and where measurements of environmental conditions have to be made.
 
Lees meer...
RFID: een gevaar voor de vrijheid
Domeinregistratie en hosting via mijndomein.nl