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    België krijgt in maart digitaal patiëntendossier

    woensdag 3 januari 2018, 09:29

    De Belgische overheid lanceert in maart van dit jaar een digitaal patiëntendossier waarmee burgers hun eigen medische dossier online kunnen zien en beheren. Dat heeft de Belgische minister van Volksgezondheid Maggie De Block op Radio 2 laten weten. Via de "personal health viewer" kunnen burgers vanuit huis hun medische gegevens controleren en aanpassen.

    Ook kunnen burgers aangeven welke informatie door zorgverleners zijn in te zien. "Ik ben heel blij dat deze 'personal health viewer' tegen maart gebruiksklaar zal zijn want eigenlijk is hij een gevolg van de wet op de patiëntenrechten uit 2002. De patiënt wordt op deze manier een beetje co-piloot. Het zet hem aan zelf meer met zijn gezondheid bezig te zijn en als hij ziek wordt heeft hij zicht op alle informatie die hij moet weten", aldus De Block.

    https://www.security.nl/posting/544626

     

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    Biometrie

    Rusland krijgt biometrische database voor financiële diensten

    Rusland krijgt volgend jaar een nationale biometrische database waar burgers vrijwillig in opgenomen kunnen worden. Ze kunnen vervolgens rekeningen openen zonder dat ze fysiek naar een filiaal van de bank hoeven te gaan. De database gaat aanvankelijk gezichtsscans en stemsamples bevatten, in een later stadium worden volgens Bloomberg vingerafdrukken en irisscans toegevoegd.

    De site schrijft dat het staatsbedrijf Rostelecom de database gaat beheren. De Centrale Bank van de Russische Federatie gaat toezicht houden op de implementatie door banken.

    In de toekomst moet het gebruik van de database voor identificatie op afstand ook ingezet worden voor andere financiële diensten als het openen van rekeningen, zoals voor verzekeringen en microfinanciering. Daarnaast noemt de centrale bank toepassing voor 'andere openbare diensten'.

    Alles bij de bron; Tweakers

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    U wordt constant gecontroleerd: privacy bestaat niet meer

    donderdag 23 mei 2013 om 06u56

    De Liga voor Mensenrechten reikt op 30 mei 2013 de Big Brother Award uit aan 'de grootste privacyschender'. “De overheid negeert de privacy niet, voor haar bestáát privacy gewoon niet meer”, zegt advocaat Raf Jespers.

    Camerabewaking©  AFP

    Camera's op elke straathoek, de uitbreiding van de GAS-boetes, nummerplaatherkenning en telecombedrijven die de gebruikersgegevens moeten bijhouden. Het zijn allemaal maatregelen die broodnodig zijn om de veiligheid van de burger te garanderen. Raf Jespers, advocaat, al dertig jaar actief in het strafrecht en lid van de Liga voor Mensenrechten, denkt er het zijne van.
    Reacties van middenveldorganisaties of individuen tegen de uitbreiding van controlemaatregelen lijken vaak een maat voor niets. “Maar ik ga niet mee in het verhaal dat de burger zich niets meer aantrekt van zijn privacy”, nuanceert Jespers. “Integendeel, er is minstens een onderhuids gevoel van bekommernis tegen de inmenging van de overheid en bedrijven.”
    1984 Als het gaat om privacy en controle wordt er niet zelden verwezen naar het beroemde boek '1984' van George Orwell. “De drie belangrijkste evoluties heeft Orwell inderdaad voorspeld”, bevestigt Jespers. “De technologische en digitale revolutie die het mogelijk maakt om, voor het eerst in de geschiedenis, iedereen permanent te controleren. Daarna was er 9/11 dat een politiek klimaat schiep om maatregelen door te voeren die daarvoor ondenkbaar waren. En ten slotte is er Europa dat de besluitvorming nog verder van de bevolking wegtrekt.”
    Dat klinkt allemaal als 'morele paniek', al nuanceert Jespers ook deze stelling. “Men heeft inderdaad van de gelegenheid gebruikgemaakt. De overheid brengt camera's, nummerplaatherkenning en GAS-boetes aan de man onder het mom van veiligheid. En dat werkt”, aldus de advocaat. “Maar dat kan ik de burger niet verwijten. Je zou kunnen zeggen: de overheid negeert of miskent de privacy. Maar het is erger dan dat. Voor haar bestaat de privacy gewoon niet meer.”
    Verantwoordelijkheden op hun kop
    Personen die zich verzetten tegen het gebruik van camera's, e-mailcontrole, de dataretentierichtlijn (Europese richtlijn die providers verplicht gebruikersgegevens bij te houden, red.) en databanken, hebben iets te verbergen. Dat zeggen althans de voorstanders. “Maar het zet de verantwoordelijkheden op hun kop”, zegt Jespers. “De burger moet niet verantwoorden waarom hij niet gezien of gecontroleerd wil worden. Het rechtelijk principe luidt dat de overheid moet verantwoorden waarom ze de burger controleert. Trouwens, tenzij men een heilige is, heeft iedereen wel iets te verbergen.”
    Absurd en duur
    Is er eigenlijk wel een alternatief voor de moderne, technologische controlemaatregelen? “Er hangen in alle bussen, metro's en trams camera's. Totaal absurd en enorm duur”, aldus Jespers. “Hang camera's gerichter op, bijvoorbeeld op risicolijnen op risicomomenten. Nu is er zelfs camerabewaking op lijnen waar sinds de afschaffing van de paardentram nooit een echt probleem is geweest.”
    Naast een efficiënter beleid, pleit de advocaat ook voor een menselijke oplossing. “Haal camera's weg in het openbaar vervoer en zet er een extra man bij. Die kan tenminste praten met de mensen en niet enkel registreren”, meent Jespers. “Maar vaak wordt de hele industrie achter de camera's en de software vergeten. Mechelen investeert tienduizenden euro's in nummerplaatherkenning, terwijl de stad met een schuld van 190 miljoen euro kampt.”
    Voorwaarden
    Volgens vele politici vraagt de bevolking om meer controle. Privacy is trouwens geen absoluut recht, aangezien het kan beperkt worden in uitzonderlijke gevallen. Denk daarbij aan een huiszoeking in het kader van een strafrechtelijk onderzoek. “Maar die uitzonderingen zijn wél onderhevig aan voorwaarden”, maakt Jespers duidelijk. “Zijn ze noodzakelijk in een democratische samenleving? Zijn ze proportioneel? Kan men hetzelfde resultaat niet bereiken op een andere manier? Met andere woorden: moeten alle nummerplaten rond Mechelen echt gecontroleerd worden? Volstaat een extra controleur op de bus niet om de veiligheid te garanderen?”
    Deze voorwaarden lijken zelden in beschouwing genomen te worden. “Op het politieke niveau kent men onvoldoende de problematiek”, zegt Jespers. “Het zou de evidentie moeten zijn om terug te vallen op de fundamentele rechten en de burgerrechten. Maar politici zijn dermate met dagjespolitiek bezig dat ze die burgerrechten zelfs niet in het achterhoofd hebben. Het bewustzijn bij het doorsnee gemeenteraadslid is hemeltergend”, vindt Jespers.
    Repressieve mentaliteit Extra verontrustend is dat de politieke top wél weet waar ze mee bezig is, maar toch op hetzelfde elan verdergaat. “De progressieve tijdsgeest van de jaren 50, 60 en 70 is omgeslagen naar een repressieve mentaliteit. De burger wordt gewantrouwd. Waarom? Omdat die van alles uitspookt? Of omdat de overheid vreest dat hij vroeg of laat op zijn achterste poten zal staan?”, vraagt Jespers zich af.
    “Het gemak waarmee men alles doorvoert, is hallucinant. De privacy is een van de onderdelen van 'de moederkoek van de vrijheden', zoals de vrije meningsuiting. De progressieve evolutie van na WOII is totaal vergeten. Dat is een van mijn grote zorgen. Als men privacy niet meer als basis voor het beleid neemt, dan vrees ik het ergste.”
    Gunther Malin / StampMedia

    http://www.knack.be/nieuws/belgie/u-wordt-constant-gecontroleerd-privacy-bestaat-niet-meer/article-4000309828750.htm










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    What does the future have in store for radical body modification?

     George Dvorsky

    We've been modifying our appearance ever since we first figured out how to pierce skin with wood and bones. Today, our tendency to twist, morph, and expand upon our naturally given forms is very much alive and well, one that's been best expressed by the radical body modification community. And now, owing to the onset of new technologies, this subculture is ready to take body modification to further extremes.

    Top image courtesy of Rachel Haywire, organizer of Extreme Futurist Fest 2012. All inset images courtesy BMEzine.com LLC.

    To get a better sense of where body modification is headed, we spoke to Shannon Larratt, founder of the BME body modification website. Larratt is no stranger to cutting edge modifications; over the last twenty years he's had a wide set of piercings, scars, tattoos, implants, and surgical modifications. He's designed much of the jewelry and equipment involved, including the procedures themselves. Larratt is also the inventor of the very first ink-injection procedure for eyeball tattooing.

    After speaking with Larratt, it became obvious that the future is very bright (and weird) for the body modders — one that aligns very closely to the techno-savvy biohacker and transhumanist communities.

    What connection does the body modification community have with the nascent sub-culture of biohackers?

    Biohackers aren't different from body modifiers at all — they are a type of body modifier. Body modification is the catch-all term, and inside that are many smaller and often overlapping subcultures. Tattooing is, of course, the largest and best known subcommunity inside body modification, and historically it has made the biggest impact to date on the human experience. But the biohacker subculture is just as valid — and I wouldn't be surprised if we look again in a thousand years, we could be saying that it was the biohackers who set in motion the evolutionary step that made us more than Homo sapiens. That said, I will say that one of the things that makes biohackers unique from other body modification communities is that they are often more concerned with function than with form. I want to be clear that I am over-simplifying to an almost offensive degree, but tattooing for example, is all form. With the exception of shamanic tattooing that has a spiritual basis, tattooing is an aesthetic practice. Biohacking on the other hand is more concerned with the functional change or improvement the modification will give — they are the transhumanists of the body modification world. They seek to make themselves more than what they were. Not just prettier. But something new or expanded.

     Do you know of any mods that would be of interest to the biohacker community, or technophiles in general?

    Full size   One particular modification that is catching the attention of the biohacker and maker communities is RFID implants. These are the tiny RFID chips encased in a tiny glass sheath that do nothing more than bounce back an ID number — the same thing that a vet might implant in your dog in case they get lost. A small handful of people have built clever systems that use these implanted RFID chips to do things like create keyless access systems to their car, house, or computers.

    However, from my point of view this falls into the "stupid human trick" category — a lot of fun, but not really that useful. Ignoring security debates about RFIDs — both how easy they are to hack and clone, and the fact that this turns you into a trackable individual — this type of thing is much better accomplished by fingerprint scanners and other biometric tools that don't require surgery. For me where things get much more exciting is when people start implanting live electronics into their bodies. The medical community has of course been implanting electronics into people for a long time, pacemakers and cochlear implants being some of the most well-known examples, but the body modification and biohacker community is just now starting to play catch-up.

    Can you tell us more about implantable electronics?

    These days a growing number of people in the body modification community have extensive experience with complex implant manufacturing. The number of people interested in implants has grown large enough to include a great many people who have the technical skills required to design and build the electronics required. All the pieces are in place to do some really fun things. For example, I've always wanted to have an implanted wristwatch. Long ago I was a huge fan of LED and other futuristic watches, collecting the sort of stuff made by TokyoFlash.

    Making a wristwatch implant would actually be quite simple. The electronics need to be as small as possible of course. Even though implants can be quite large (a single double-D breast implant has more volume than many laptop computers at this point), if the implant is kept thin it will be inconspicuous, perhaps even undetectable without touching it. So the wristwatch would be built with surface mount components in a tight package. The LEDs would easily be visible through the skin — it's quite possible that some small backlit panels could be visible through the skin but simple round or bar-shaped LEDs would be my choice for a watch. One could do a numeric display, a geeky binary display, or even just use a single light and flash the time with morse code. You're probably not going to leave the light on all the time in order to preserve the battery, but triggering could be accomplished in many ways. An accelerometer could be used to trigger it with a specific arm motion, a pressure switch could respond to touch, or in my case, or a magnetic switch could respond to me waving my finger over it — there are many options, but whatever is chosen would have to be versatile enough to also allow the time to be set. Finally — and this is the biggest issue — there's power. You could have yourself cut open have the battery replaced — but there's no need for that. Inductive charging is easy to build, and wireless chargers are commonplace these days — personally I would include such a circuit.

     Wait a minute, won't the body reject these foreign substances? Well, once the electronics are built, they definitely need to be made biocompatible. If you just cut a hole in yourself and stick in a circuit board, neither your body or your electronics are going to thank you. More importantly, both your body and your electronics will be in serious need of repair if you do this! As with neodymium magnets, which break down when they come in contact with the body, the solution is to not let them come in contact. This is done by coating the magnet or the electronics in a layer of biologically inert silicone. It is of utmost importance that this step be done right, because the smallest point of access between the body and the electronics and the project will fail — possibly with medically disastrous consequences. This step needs to be done by someone with extensive experience with both mould making for implants with encased materials body modification. I can not emphasize enough that this is the most important step. If you screw up building the electronics, you've simply wasted your time. But if you screw up the silicone, you're risking your health. All the pieces are in place for people to start getting some very exciting live electronics implanted. Everything is ready — all it takes is for an electronics maker to team up with an implant maker, and the snowball starts rolling. On a technical level, we are already capable of doing things like the implanted cell phones in the recent Total Recall movie. The future is here, just behind the bedroom door, waiting for us. All we have to do is step through, get in bed, and start.
     
     Sure, this sounds great — but what about the risks?  Yes, of course, all of this is not without risk — significant risk perhaps. If a battery were to leak — let's not even think about exploding — and tear through the silicone somehow, noxious chemicals could be released into the body. Even in the best case scenario, the implant will have to eventually be removed, probably because it stopped working — to say nothing of obsolescence. It's not going to be as fun to upgrade your cellphone every nine months if you have to cut it out of your hand first. In the early days there will be a lot of problems so doing as much testing as possible is important. For example, after the implant is built, letting it sit in warm body temperature salt water for a few weeks to make sure the implant is solid and that the electronics can handle the temperature and environment. But even with the best testing, for the first few years, the guinea pigs need to know that things will go wrong and that they're treading unknown ground. For me, and I'm sure many other pioneers, this has always been part of the fun. Exploring dangerous new territory s a wonderful adventure, if a foolhardy one that many people don't understand the joy of and ridicule.
     
     What about magnetic implants — tiny neodymium magnets that are implanted in the finger tip? Is this still a popular add-on? 
      Absolutely — magnetic implants have actually become quite common, and I would make a very rough guess that at least a thousand of them have been implanted. They work by creating a haptic interface. The magnet moves or vibrates when it is exposed to magnetic or electromagnetic fields. This can be felt by the same nerves that are used for touch, nerves that are extremely dense and sensitive in the fingertips. They are generally placed slightly to the side of the fingertip rather than centrally in the finger pad so that they don't affect function, and they're quite tiny, having a volume comparable to a grain of uncooked rice. When the magnets move, you are aware of it, and it doesn't take long before this becomes a distinct sensation from touch. It doesn't just feel like having a tiny vibrator inside your finger, even though that's exactly what it is. It's more natural than that. For example, if you are feeling the electromagnetic bubble that comes off of a power transformer, like what your laptop might use, it feels like you're reaching out and touching an invisible bubble. That bubble has form (you can move your hand around to get an idea of the shape) and it has strength (the amount of power dictates how far the magnet is being moved inside your finger) and it even has "colour" (the frequency of the electromagnetic field alters how quickly the magnet vibrates).
     All of this is processed on a subconscious level, and it really is like having a sixth sense. It's hard to describe just how wonderful this is — our world is so rich with electromagnetism. It's such an important part of the modern world, yet most people are blind to it. Sure, you know intellectually that it's there, and you can even detect it with various tools, but it's not the same as actually sensing it. Nor are the tools as fast or convenient.
     Because I can feel the power running through cables (at household voltages anyway), and transformers are easy to detect, there are many times where I've used it to quickly diagnose hardware issues without having to pull out a multimeter. The sensitivity is high enough to detect a spinning hard drive engine through the keyboard of a laptop, or to feel a distributor firing in a car being repaired.
     Of all the body modifications I've had, my magnets may be at the top of my favorites list. They're certainly the most profound in terms of expanding my world. I've had them for a bit over seven years, and I feel like if I were to lose them I would feel blind.
     
     And what do you see happening in the more distant future?

    The real holy grail of both biohacking and body modification is of genetically engineering humans and of building new body parts. We make massive strides forward in genetics every year, and we're getting to the point where we can "print out" new organs and body parts on a 3D printer, ready to implant and integrate into the body. These things are incredibly exciting to anyone into body modification — biohackers or not — but I think they will still be some time in arriving, and at least at first will come at a huge financial cost to say nothing of the medical risk. Either way, the human body has a very exciting future before it, both in the short term and in the long term.

    However it ends up happening, I have no doubt that a slow merging of human and machine is in our future. Evolution does not move fast enough for our vision and dreams. Humans have reached a point where we are able to control our biological destiny, making us the masters of not just our health, but our morphology. I believe that body modification both prepares us and is an important first step into the undiscovered country. Image of subdermal tattoo via GearFuse. Banner and bottom image: Rachel Haywire. All other images courtesy BMEzine.com LLC.

     

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    Europees Hof van Justitie oordeelt over opslag vingerafdrukken

    Datum: 2 oktober 2012 14:59
    Door: Henri (Alphen aan den Rijn)

    Het Europees Hof van Justitie moet gaan oordelen of de opslag van vingerafdrukken in paspoorten en identiteitskaarten in strijd is met het recht op privacy. De Afdeling bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State (de hoogste bestuursrechter in Nederland) heeft daartoe vier prejudiciële vragen gesteld aan het Europees Hof in Luxemburg. Met een prejudiciële vraag wordt gevraagd om uitleg van het recht van de Europese Unie.
    Het betreft een aantal zaken waarin burgemeesters van steden een aanvraag voor een paspoort of id-kaart niet in behandeling hebben genomen omdat de aanvragers weigerden vingerafdrukken af te geven. De Europese Unie verplicht lidstaten tot de opslag van vingerafdrukken in het paspoort en identiteitsbewijs. De Raad van State wil nu van het Hof in Luxemburg weten of de opslag volgens hem in strijd is met het recht op privacy.

    Het duurt ongeveer een jaar tot anderhalf jaar voordat het Hof uitspraak heeft gedaan. Daarna zal de Raad van State de behandeling voortzetten en uiteindelijk definitieve uitspraken doen in de geschillen tussen de burgemeesters en de vier aanvragers.
    Het is sinds 2009 verplicht voor alle Nederlandse gemeenten om vingerafdrukken af te nemen bij de aanvraag van een reisdocument. Twee vingerafdrukken worden in een chip op het document opgeslagen.

    Bron: http://www.opslagruimte-nieuws.nl/europees-hof-van-justitie-oordeelt-over-opslag-vingerafdrukken.html

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    Raad van State stelt vragen aan Hof van Justitie in Luxemburg over opslag vingerafdrukken in paspoorten en identiteitskaarten

    (vrijdag 28 september)

    De Afdeling bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State heeft in vier hogerberoepszaken zogenoemde prejudiciële vragen gesteld aan het Hof van Justitie in Luxemburg. Het gaat om zaken waarin de burgemeesters van Den Haag, Nuth, Skarsterlân en Amsterdam een aanvraag voor een paspoort of identiteitskaart niet in behandeling hadden genomen, omdat de aanvragers weigerden de daarvoor verlangde vingerafdrukken af te geven. De Raad van State wil van het Hof in Luxemburg weten of de Europese verordening, die lidstaten van de Europese Unie verplicht tot het opnemen van vingerafdrukken in paspoorten en reisdocumenten, in strijd is met het recht op privacy.

    Naar het oordeel van de Raad van State is 'op voorhand niet duidelijk of de beperking van het recht op privacy evenredig is in verhouding tot het belang om misbruik van paspoorten en reisdocumenten te voorkomen'. Daarom heeft de Raad van State besloten prejudiciële vragen te stellen aan het Hof. De Raad van State wil weten of de Europese verordening in strijd is met het recht op privacy. Daarnaast wil de Raad van State weten of de Europese verordening behalve op paspoorten ook van toepassing is op de Nederlandse identiteitskaart. Ten slotte wil de Raad van State duidelijkheid of moet worden gewaarborgd dat de vingerafdrukken niet voor andere doeleinden worden verzameld en gebruikt dan voor de afgifte van een paspoort of identiteitskaart.

    De behandeling van de hogerberoepszaken bij de Raad van State wordt geschorst, in afwachting van de antwoorden van het Hof in Luxemburg. Dit duurt naar verwachting ongeveer een jaar tot anderhalf jaar. Daarna zal de Raad van State de behandeling voortzetten en uiteindelijk definitieve uitspraken doen in de geschillen tussen de burgemeesters en de vier aanvragers. De Raad van State heeft het Luxemburgse Hof gevraagd om de vragen gelijktijdig te behandelen met een vraag die een Duitse rechter eerder dit jaar stelde aan het Hof over de geldigheid van deze Europese verordening.

    Sinds 2009 staat in de Nederlandse Paspoortwet dat voor het aanvragen van een paspoort of identiteitskaart vingerafdrukken moeten worden afgegeven. Twee vingerafdrukken worden in een chip op het document opgeslagen.

    Lees hier de uitspraken met zaaknummers
    201205423/1 (Amsterdam), 201110934/1 (Nuth), 201110242/1 (Skarsterlân) en 201105172/1 (Den Haag).

    Bron: http://www.raadvanstate.nl/pers/persberichten/persbericht/?pressmessage_id=202

     

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    Na optreden CBP wijzigt NS gebruik reisgegevens OV-chipkaart 
    CBP-onderzoek naar gegevensverwerking OV-chipkaart voor marketingdoeleinden 
    Persbericht, 28 augustus 2012

    Het College bescherming persoonsgegevens (CBP) heeft tijdens onderzoek geconstateerd dat NS de wet heeft overtreden bij het gebruik van persoonsgegevens van OV-chipkaarthouders voor marketingdoeleinden. NS heeft naar aanleiding van deze constatering maatregelen getroffen waardoor de overtredingen van de Wet bescherming persoonsgegevens (Wbp) inmiddels zijn beëindigd.
    Uit de door het CBP onderzochte verwerkingen van reisgegevens voor marketingdoeleinden bleek dat NS een gedetailleerd beeld van het reisgedrag van de OV-chipkaarthouders vastlegde. NS gebruikte deze gedetailleerde reisgegevens zonder de vereiste toestemming hiervoor van de reizigers. Daarmee leefde het vervoerbedrijf de eerder door het CBP geformuleerde voorwaarden waaronder OV-bedrijven reisgegevens mogen verwerken voor marketingdoeleinden, niet na. NS heeft zich in 2008 aan de uitwerking van de wet in de voorwaarden uitdrukkelijk verbonden.
    Uit het onderzoek kwam ook naar voren dat NS persoonsgegevens van anonieme OV-chipkaarthouders verzamelde. Het OV-bedrijf gebruikte namelijk de e-mailadressen van de anonieme OV-chipkaarthouders die hun saldo via de website van NS activeerden voor direct marketingdoeleinden.
     
     
     
    Voorwaarden gebruik OV-chipkaartgegevens voor marketing
    In 2008 heeft het CBP voorwaarden geformuleerd waaronder persoonsgegevens uit het OV-chipkaartsysteem voor marketingdoeleinden gebruikt mogen worden. Daarmee verschafte het CBP duidelijkheid over wat in dit kader wel en niet mag op basis van de Wbp. NS bleek geen van deze voorwaarden na te leven, zo kwam uit het onderzoek naar voren. Omdat via de OV-chipkaart veel persoonsgegevens worden verzameld is het van groot belang dat reizigers erop kunnen vertrouwen dat dit op een verantwoorde manier gebeurt. De door het CBP gestelde voorwaarden hebben tot doel te voorkomen dat een gedetailleerd beeld van het reisgedrag van reizigers wordt vastgelegd. NS legde juist wel vast wie op welk tijdstip waar heeft gereisd ten behoeve van zijn marketingactiviteiten.
    NS heeft naar aanleiding van de eerste onderzoeksbevindingen van het CBP maatregelen getroffen om de overtredingen te beëindigen. Het CBP heeft deze beoordeeld en concludeert dat het vervoerbedrijf inmiddels voldoet aan de voorwaarden.
     
    Anonieme OV-chipkaart
    Het CBP constateerde tijdens het onderzoek dat NS persoonsgegevens, namelijk het e-mailadres, gebruikte van reizigers met een anonieme OV-chipkaart die het reizen op saldo bij NS via de website activeerden. Als een openbaar vervoerbedrijf een anonieme OV-chipkaart aanbiedt, moet de reiziger er van uit kunnen gaan dat deze OV-chipkaart door het vervoerbedrijf niet herleid kan worden tot de betreffende natuurlijke persoon. Onder anonimiteit wordt immers verstaan dat de gegevens niet tot een persoon herleidbaar zijn. NS heeft naar aanleiding van deze constatering van het CBP de e-mailadressen vernietigd en heeft aangegeven geen nieuwe e-mailadressen van anonieme OV-chipkaarthouders meer te verzamelen.
    z2011-00335
    Bron: CPB.nl.
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    PM Netanyahu addresses Institute for National Security Studies
     
     
    29 May 2012
    [Translated from Hebrew]
    I would like to speak about the goals of peace, the manner in which to attain it, and above all, the conditions necessary to uphold it. A peace agreement with the Palestinians is necessary first and foremost to prevent a bi-national state. It is preferable to live in peace. Peace is better than any other situation, but we need to prevent a bi-national state, as well as strengthen the future of Israel as a Jewish and democratic country.

    We do not want to rule over the Palestinians, nor do we want the Palestinians to be citizens of the State of Israel. That is why three times - in my speech at Bar-Ilan, in my speech in the Knesset and later in my speech at the American Congress - I declared that I support and welcome peace between two nation-states - a demilitarized Palestinian state that recognizes the Jewish state, and Israel, the nation-state of the Jewish people.

    I believe there is very broad support among the people for such a peace agreement, one based on mutual respect and security for Israel. By security, I mean substantive security arrangements on the ground that provide a response to the ongoing threats and any new threats that are introduced.

    I believe that the unity government under my leadership is an expression of this broad support, and I call again on Mahmoud Abbas not to miss this unique opportunity and give peace a chance. Let me clarify - I have not set any conditions to enter into negotiations. Certainly I will have conditions to conclude negotiations, and so will Mahmoud Abbas. This is natural and it is the reason we conduct negotiations. But this is why I say to Abbas - don't miss out on this opportunity to extend your hand in peace. If I had to say it another way, I would say, "President Abbas, all we are saying is 'give peace a chance'."

    This is a real opportunity. It will not necessarily be repeated in general or political history, but it exists now and peace negotiations need two sides. One side is ready and willing. Peace between Israel and the Palestinians is in the clear interest of both peoples, but it must be said clearly that there are things that peace with the Palestinians will not bring. Despite popular opinion, peace with the Palestinians will not ensure regional peace. Tremendous historic forces are working in the area in opposition to regional peace, and they will continue to unsettle our environment. On a day to day basis, they work to destroy the State of Israel and they are interested in undermining any peace agreement - those that have been signed and those that we hope to sign in the future.

    These extremist forces are motivated by religious fanaticism and a fundamental objection to Western culture, of which Israel is a clear representative. So far we have been successful in overcoming these and other forces that have opposed our existence. We did so by maintaining our qualitative advantage. Today we face new challenges that obligate us to find new ways of maintaining this advantage. In order to have peace in situations of conflict, a balance of power or excess of power is needed. In our case with regard to the extremist religious fanaticism that is directed at us, we need an excess of power. We must safeguard our advantage in the fields that I will detail later.

    There are four threats that challenge the State of Israel today and threaten it and peace. We are prepared to provide a response for each and every one of them. The four threats are nuclear, missiles, cyber and vast weapons reserves that are being stockpiled in our region. There is also a fifth threat that I will discuss later.

    As to the nuclear issue, let me address the talks between the superpowers and Iran. Not only do the sanctions need to be harsher, the demands on Iran for which the sanctions are imposed must be strengthened and the powers must insist that Iran fulfill these demands in full. Iran must stop all enrichment of nuclear material; it must remove all materials enriched to date from its territory; and it must dismantle its underground nuclear enrichment plant at Qom. Only a specific Iranian commitment during negotiations to meet all three demands and a clear confirmation that they have been executed can stop Iran's nuclear plan. This should be the goal of the negotiations. But I must say regretfully that this is not what is asked of Iran today.

    To date, there have been several rounds of talks in which the Iranians were required to stop low levels of uranium enrichment, this is to say, to stop enrichment of 3.5%. Even though that is a low level, it is a significant part of the enrichment process needed to prepare fissile material for a bomb. Not only did the Iranians not do this, they continued enriching uranium without interruption and increased their level of enrichment to 20%, and as it has recently become apparent, even higher than that. In other words, they are constantly advancing their nuclear program to create atomic bombs.

    One would expect that the powers demand that Iran stop all enrichment in light of its serial violations and in light of the fact that they are currently enriching at a level of 20%, but instead they are reducing their demands. In the first round, they demanded that the Iranians stop the 3.5%, and even that is not happening now. In this round, they are not even insisting that the Iranians stop all enrichment. On the one hand, it is good that they are imposing heavy economic sanctions on Iran. This is a positive and important thing. We asked for it, and I must say with satisfaction that this pressure is being put on Iran. However, on the other hand, these sanctions must be accompanied by the demands I outlined. It is the combination of the two that will lead to the stopping of the Iranian nuclear program. It is very possible that the Iranians will temporarily stop their enrichment at 20%, but that is not enough. The test will be if the Irania! ns will agree to stop all enrichment, remove all enriched material and to dismantle their underground nuclear facility at Qom. This is the test and there is no other.

    Regarding the missile threat, from the moment our enemies understood they cannot beat us on the military battlefield, they turned to missile and rocket weapons that they use against our cities and communities. No other country is more threatened by missiles than the State of Israel, and no other country is as advanced in building a missile defense system as Israel.

    We employ two kinds of defense. In the field of active defense, we invested in the Iron Dome system and we are expanding its deployment. We appreciate America's important support in this regard. This is in addition to developing new systems - David's Sling and the Arrow missile system for multi-layered defense. With regard to passive defense, we installed sirens across the country and we are preparing a warning system that will directly dial the mobile phones of each and every citizen. There was a trial run of this in Netanya today, and it will not take long before we are able to warn people about the firing of missiles. This will allow us to prevent the entire country from becoming paralyzed and focus on the threatened area.

    These passive and active systems - but first and foremost active - not only improve defense, they improve our offensive and deterrence capabilities because they expand our maneuvering space for activating our offensive capabilities. We are not being dragged into unconsidered responses. We have more time, and I think that we use it with great consideration in choosing the appropriate action. The defense systems against the missile threat will be able to do what the separation fence against suicide bombers did. However, I would like to point out something that I say at every opportunity, and I will say it again today - defensive force is not enough. Offensive force is needed to strike at the enemy and deter further action. The combination of offensive and defensive force can prevent war or shorten it.

    The third field, the cyber field, also affects the first two threats. It is certainly wrapped up in the nuclear and missile problems. The cyber capability that we are developing increases the State of Israel's defensive capability. In the cyber field, a country's size has little meaning, but there is great meaning to its scientific power, and in that, Israel is blessed. We are investing a great deal of capital in this - human and fiscal capital alike - and I expect that these investments will grow in the coming years.

    It must be said also that all advanced, developed countries are currently under threat from cyber attack systems. Because we are one of the most computerized countries in the world, we are especially exposed to cyber attacks, and in order to improve our ability to defend ourselves, this year I established a national cyber headquarters. Like any other matter of importance, I set a goal: that Israel be one of the five leading countries in the cyber field worldwide. I believe we can achieve this goal.

    The nuclear, missile and cyber threats are new threats that we are preparing for, but unfortunately there is a fourth threat - an old threat, one that is familiar to the veterans here who served in the IDF and our defense establishment and that is the vast weapons stockpiles in the region. We cannot entirely rule out the possibility that weapons supplied today to other countries in the region will not be used against us in the future. We cannot rule out the possibility that extremist forces will take over regimes that today do not pose a threat to us and that these forces will not use the weapons found there against us. After all, this is not a theoretical matter. It has already happened - quite prominently in Iran - and it can also happen given the tremendous shock our region is experiencing, and it can certainly happen in other places.

    This is why maintaining Israel's qualitative advantage is a central component in our national security. It is an issue we discuss constantly with our allies and our friends in the United States, and we will continue to do so.

    That is how to deal with the fourth threat, but as I mentioned earlier, there is a fifth threat that can endanger the future of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic state. This threat is the breaching of our borders by illegal infiltrators seeking work. At the beginning of this government's term, I already began to deal with this problem. As early as 2005 or 2006, people spoke about it.

    Shortly after we withdrew from Gaza, people said that a fence must be built. In 2009, when this government began its work, there was still no fence, not even the beginning of a fence. There was no budget for a fence and there was no agreement about the need for a fence. It was said that a fence would be ineffective, that it would not stop anyone, that it was too expensive, that it was superfluous. When I insisted, people said, "Well then, we'll build two sections." I insisted otherwise. People told me, "But it will cost two billion shekels." I said that we would allocate funds without breaching the budgetary framework as this was a matter of priority. And it is a national priority, because otherwise we will be swamped. We will have not tens of thousands, but rather hundreds of thousands of infiltrators, and our country is too small. Other countries lost control of their borders at costs that they still cannot fully assess, but we know that ! we cannot allow ourselves to do so.

    Therefore, less than a year after the government's establishment, we decided to erect the fence, allocate funds for it and complete its construction from Gaza to Eilat. This fence will be completed in several months of extraordinary work. I go down there every few months with my military secretary, Johanan Locker, who played an important role in expediting and pushing the system, but today, the systems is already pushing itself.

    My policy with regard to the illegal infiltrators seeking work is clear - first to stop their entry with the fence, while at the same time deporting the infiltrators who are in Israel. We will begin by deporting the South Sudanese infiltrators dependent on the court's approval, which I hope we will receive over the next several days. Later, we will continue with other groups.

    It is important to understand that international law makes deportation very difficult. It states that if one wants to return illegal infiltrators to their countries of origin, one needs the approval of the country. If one wants to return them or deport them to a third country, one must obtain the country's approval. In both cases, one must ensure that no harm comes to them; in other words, that the conditions in the country do not threaten their lives. In order to uphold this condition, we are in contact with many countries. It is not a matter that can be resolved overnight, but unlike what I read today, it is also not a problem with no solution and no action to be taken.

    It is true that if we had not decided to erect the fence two years ago, then we would not be dealing with 60,000 illegal infiltrators; within several years we would be dealing with 600,000 - the problem would be magnified by a factor of ten. So first of all, we are stopping them, and although it is difficult and it is not a problem that can be solved overnight, we can deport them and we will. Just as we solved other problems, we will solve this problem methodically and responsibly, in accordance with international agreements.

    I am aware of the distress suffered by the residents of South Tel Aviv and Eilat. I visited them and spoke with them, and with the residents of Arad and of other communities and cities in Israel suffering from this problem. However, I reiterate my call to public figures and to the residents to show restraint and act responsibly. We are a moral people and we will act accordingly. We denounce violence; we denounce invective; we respect human rights. Refugees have rights and we respect them.

    People who do not have the right to be here still have certain rights, and we respect those too, but we will deport them according to the law, responsibly. We will not lose our humanity and we will not deprive anyone of their humanity. However, at the same time, we will not accept a reality in which infiltrators from an entire continent come here en masse to work. We are committed to defending our borders in order to defend the future of the State of Israel as a Jewish and democratic country.

    Ladies and Gentlemen,

    There are people who, when they hear about these threats that I outlined, do not think that we should devote most of our efforts to thwarting them. They think that we do not have to concentrate so much effort against a nuclear Iran, or against the missile threat or the cyber threat or the breach of our borders. They claim that if we just sign a peace agreement with the Palestinians, everything will fall into place and that somehow things will work out. I do not share this opinion.

    Once people told us that if we only solved the Syria problem everything would work out, do you remember that? That same Syria is currently slaughtering its people with horrible brutality, with, of course, the assistance of Iran and Hizbullah - real assistance, not just political support: assistance in murder. Well, I do not share that opinion. We do not share that opinion about Syria, but we do share the opinion that we need to act simultaneously against the threats, while at the same time trying to advance the peace process with the Palestinians. We strive for peace with our Palestinian neighbors at the same time that we are thwarting the threats against our security. These actions do not conflict. On the contrary, they are complementary.

    The great American historian and gifted author Will Durant expressed my approach to ensuring our existence well. In 1968, towards the end of his life he wrote a small book of 100 pages, which he called, The Lessons in History. In it, he wrote, "These faiths and Christianity assured their followers that the good spirit would win in the end, but of this consummation history offers no guarantee. Nature and history do not agree with our conceptions of good or bad; they define good as that which survives, and bad as that which goes under; and the universe has no prejudice." Later on, he writes, "In the present inadequacy of international law and sentiment a nation must be ready at any moment to defend itself and when its essential interests are involved it must be allowed to use any means it considers essential to its survival." He wrote this in 1968.

    My friends, I thank you for this opportunity to present you the principles that guide me in ensuring the existence and future of the State of Israel in security and peace.

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    Grote controle politie en Belastingdienst ANPR
     
    Kampen, 26-05-2012

    Vrijdag 25 mei heeft de politie, in samenwerking met de Belastingdienst een controle gehouden op de N50. Er werden ongeveer 250 voertuigen gecontroleerd. Er werd geverbaliseerd voor de volgende overtredingen:

     

    Overbelading aaanhangwagen (1x); Geen verzekering (1x); Verlopen APK (1x); Stoppen op de autoweg (1x); Ondeugdelijke/onleesbare kentekenplaat (1x); Gladde banden auto + aanhangwagen (6x); Losse lading/niet vastgezet (2x); Losbreekreminrichting ondeugdelijk/niet aangebracht (3x); Geen rijbewijs (geen B bij E) (2x); Contourverlichting caravan ondeugdelijk (1x); Niet werkende remlichten (1x); Geen kentekenplaat aanhangwagen (1x); Geen deugdelijke bevestiging verlichtingarmatuur

    (1x).

     

    Voor het niet bij zich hebben van het rijbewijs en/of kentekenbewijs zijn diverse waarschuwingen uitgedeeld. Met betrekking tot de geconstateerde gebreken stond de Wegenwacht paraat, die ter plaatse diverse problemen heeft opgelost danwel de mensen verwezen heeft naar bedrijven,

    die het probleem konden oplossen en maakte daarvoor ook direct een afspraak, zodat men direct geholpen kon worden.

     

    Via de ANPR werden er duizenden kentekens gecontroleerd, wat resulteerde in 39 beslagen door de Belastingdienst, waarbij 10 auto's direct werden afgevoerd. Verder werd in totaal een bedrag van 53.000 Euro direct betaald door 15 personen.
     
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    Minder overvallen door camera's met gezichtsherkenning
    null
     
    Het aantal overvallen is fors gedaald. Behalve bij de supermarkten en de horeca. Opstelten denkt er nu aan om ook daar meer camera's met gezichtsherkenning in te zetten.

    Het aantal overvallen lag de eerste vier maanden van dit jaar 24 procent lager dan in dezelfde periode in 2009, liet demissionair Minister Opstelten weten. Volgens de Raad van Korpschefs is dat het gevolg van een intensief project tegen overvallen, dat twee jaar geleden bij alle korpsen is gestart.

    Groot succes
    Sinds die tijd wordt er meer gesurveilleerd in winkelgebieden, worden er helikopters ingezet en zijn speciale rechercheteams geformeerd. Maar ook een proef met camera’s met gezichtsherkenning bij een juwelier en een tankstation in Rotterdam is een groot succes gebleken.

    Opstelten overweegt nu om het project verder uit te breiden. Hij wil kijken of de camera's met biometrische gezichtsherkenning ook ingezet kunnen worden in de horeca en de supermarkten. Daar is namelijk wel sprake van een stijging van het aantal overvallen.

    Gezicht gescand
    De pilot in Rotterdam, genaamd Fotoswitch, wordt uitgevoerd door het Hilversumse bedrijf Teleconnect in samenwerking met de politie en het OM. Marcel van Kersbergen, directeur van het bedrijf: "Van elke bezoeker die de winkel wil betreden wordt vooraf het gezicht gescand. Zodra de software een gezicht herkent uit de database krijgt de juwelier een negatief signaal om de deur te openen en blijft de potentiële overvaller letterlijk voor een gesloten deur staan."

    Als er toch een overval wordt gepleegd, is er altijd een foto van de dader beschikbaar die gebruikt kan worden voor opsporing en die direct kan worden toegevoegd aan de database. Als de dader het dan nog eens probeert, wordt hij herkend. De kans op nieuwe overvallen wordt daarmee verkleind en de pakkans vergroot.

    Niet fopneus-proof
    "En het is echt niet alleen geschikt voor juweliers met een 'gesloten deur'-principe. Het kan ook zeker ingezet worden bij supermarkten en de horeca." Maar het systeem is niet feilloos. Zo droegen de overvallers tijdens het tragische incident in Den Haag een fopneus en een fopbril. Van Kersbergen: "De camera is echter niet in staat om complete carnavalsmaskers virtueel af te doen en te zeggen wie daar onder zit. Het is een hulpmiddel geen tovermiddel."
     
    Bron: http://www.bnr.nl/programma/bnrzakendoenmet/188582-1205/minder-overvallen-door-camera-s-met-gezichtsherkenning
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    Google Wallet: one year later (NFC and RFID)

    The rumors and leaks go back a bit further, but it was a year ago today that Google officially revealed its Google Wallet mobile payment service -- a platform that the company is still betting big on, even if it may be slightly reconsidering the way it does business. While it might not have taken off quite as quickly as Google would have liked, the past year has still been a fairly eventful one for the service -- albeit occasionally for reasons the company would prefer you forget -- and the next year proves to be even more challenging as the service faces increased competition. Read on for a look back at how we got here, and what lies ahead for both Google Wallet and mobile payments in general.

    The History

    Of course, while Wallet is Google's first big push into mobile payments, it is far from the first. Mobile payments have been "the future" of payments for decades now, long before the days of smartphones equipped with NFC (or Near Field Communication). Early attempts in the 1990s from companies like DigiCash focused not on phones, but on standalone "smart cards," which promised better security, no transaction fees and more convenience than traditional credit cards -- one day we would use them not to just pay for items at a store, but from our home computers as well. E-cash for an e-economy.

    With the rapid rise of cellphones, though, came a push for mobile commerce, or "m-commerce," an effort that really began to pick up steam in the early 2000s when mobile payments were not just the realm of upstarts, but big players like Nokia (which would continue to push its own efforts throughout the decade). Our phones would be the one device we used for everything: they'd open doors, get us on a bus or subway, and let us pay for anything, anywhere. In many ways, that's still the goal we're working towards, and one that's slowly starting to become a reality.
     
    The Launch

    The launch of Google Wallet was a typical, modern day tech event. The press assembled on short notice for a presentation filled with slides, demonstrations and much walking back and forth on stage -- partners were trotted out, promises were made and lots of questions were left unanswered. The launch event also marked the start of a very slow rollout for the service itself. Just one phone on one carrier was announced at the event -- the Sprint Nexus S 4G -- and the service launched only in limited trials in New York and San Francisco, with a vague "summer" date given for a broader rollout.

    The launch of the service also brought a dispute with PayPal out into the open, with that company filing suit against Google the very day of the event, alleging that former PayPal executive Osama Bedier misappropriated the company's trade secrets in developing Google Wallet. PayPal further alleged that Stephanie Tilenius, also formerly of PayPal, violated the terms of her contract in recruiting Bedier. Google said it would defend itself against those charges at the time, but little has emerged about the lawsuit since, and PayPal itself is continuing to pursue a number of mobile payment initiatives.
     
    The Devices

    Image

    In the past year, the lineup of devices supporting Google Wallet has expanded a bit, but not all that much. In addition to the Nexus S, the Sprint Galaxy Nexus, LG Viper and LG Optimus Elite (also available on Sprint's Virgin Mobile prepaid brand) all support mobile payments with Google Wallet. You can also use the service with an unlocked Galaxy Nexus, albeit only on AT&T and T-Mobile (as Verizon has deemed fit to block it). Key to all of those phones is a built-in NFC chip, which has become the de facto standard for mobile payments in recent years. NFC itself is an extension of RFID technology (Radio-Frequency Identification), which was the basis for a number of earlier mobile payment efforts.

    No fewer than 10 Google Wallet-supporting devices in all have been promised for this year -- but, again, Sprint remains the sole carrier (more on what the other big carriers are up to later). There was talk from the launch event of expanding the service through NFC stickers that could be attached to any smartphone, but this hasn't yet panned out.
     
    The Partnerships

    While it may be a bit short on carriers and phones, Google has fared a bit better when it comes to partners on the financial and retail sides. It's teamed up with MasterCard to allow for payments via hundreds of thousands of PayPass terminals at stores across the United States. There's also no shortage of retailers who have signed on to offer not just mobile payments, but coupons and loyalty credits as well -- Walgreens, Toys R Us, Macy's, The Gap, and Foot Locker, to name a few, with more promised.

    Unfortunately, while MasterCard allows the service to be accepted at plenty of retailers, you still need a Citibank MasterCard to get the most out of it. Other cardholders can use the service, but you'll need to regularly top up your Google Wallet account rather than draw funds directly from your credit card. There's no word on any further expansion in that area just yet.
     
    The Competition

    Google faces a number of challenges on the road to widespread adoption of the service, not the least of which is some increased competition. Its biggest rival by far (at least in the US) is Isis, a joint venture between AT&T, T-Mobile and Verizon that's challenging Google and Sprint head-on -- offering the same contactless payments, coupons and loyalty cards, with an NFC-enabled smartphone handling all of the transactions. Also like Google Wallet, it's starting out slow, with trials in just two cities this summer (Salt Lake City and Austin), and a limited, but growing, number of credit card partners (currently including Chase, Capital One and American Express). Perhaps its biggest advantage over Google Wallet, though, is the promise of far more supported phones (from virtually all of the big manufacturers, Apple aside) on all three of the aforementioned carriers.

    The company would also face several challengers if it intends to compete on an international level. A group of the UK's biggest carriers are forming their own Isis-like joint venture, Rogers and CIBC recently announced an initiative of their own in Canada, and various other partnerships and solo efforts are starting to sprout up around the globe before Google even gets its foot in the door.
     
    The Future
     
    So what will year two of Google Wallet look like? That's still very much a guessing game at this point, with Google itself staying relatively mum on any future plans beyond those aforementioned (but still unspecified) new devices and additional retail partners. The Wall Street Journal did recently report that Google may be considering a shift in strategy, however, with it possibly either sharing revenue with carriers in order to bring more on board or even side-stepping the carriers altogether and instead working directly with retailers to manage transactions. What is clear, though, is that this next year will likely be the most interesting time yet for mobile payments -- an area that, for all its progress, is still really just beginning to get off the ground.
     
    Bron: http://www.engadget.com/2012/05/26/google-wallet-one-year-later/
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    INTRODUCTION TO RFID
    UHF (Ultra High Frequency) RFID Standards and Frequencies

    In the UHF (Ultra High Frequency) band, where RFID tags work according to the principles of the electromagnetic coupling, the most popular technology at the moment is the one based on the ISO 18000-6C protocol, best known as EPC Class 1 Gen 2 or for short Gen 2. The EPC Class 1 Gen 2 standard was proposed by the private organization EPCGlobal and then adopted in 2006 as the ISO 18000-6C standard by the International Standards Organization (ISO).

    The EPC Class 1 Gen 2 standard was created to address some issues of previous UHF RFID standards conceived for logistics applications (such as the ISO 18000-6a and the ISO 18000-6b). The new standard was developed specifically to track fluxes of goods between different companies and across all world regions with good read performance in environments with a high density of tags.

    According to the standard specifications, EPC Class 1 Gen 2 tags have four memory banks: reserved, EPC, TID and user memory. The EPC bank, typically 96 bit in size, is the one that mainly characterizes EPC Gen 2 tags. It allows to univocally identify an enormous number of objects and controls anti-collision and wake-up functions. Since the EPC number is programmed by the user, more and more Gen 2 RFID tags in the market, as well as tags of other technologies, have a unique serial number that is set at the factory by the IC manufacturer and is inalterable in order to make the tag really unique. This feature is particularly important in applications where counterfeiting is an issue.

    EPC Gen 2 RFID tags work in the frequency band that goes from the 860 MHz to the 950 MHz, but there are three main frequency sub-bands used in different geographical regions:

    - Europe, India, Middle East, Africa: 865-868 MHz (ETSI)

    - US (plus South America and some regions of Asia): 902-928 MHz (FCC)

    - Japan: 950-956 MHz (JPN)

    There are EPC Gen 2 tags that are designed to work well across the entire 860-950 band and others that are optimized to provide the best performance in a specific sub-band.

    The majority of EPC Class 1 Gen 2 tags on the market are passive tags, but Gen 2 BAP tags and semi-passive Gen 2 RFID tags are also available.

    Passive UHF Gen 2 RFID tags – Common advantages:
    - Global functioning.
    - Read range from a few centimeters (UHF near field) to more than 10 meters.
    - Lower costs of labels in comparison to HF labels in good volumes.
    - Good performance in data transmission and in environments with high tag density.

    Passive UHF Gen 2 RFID tags – Common disadvantages:
    - Difficulties with liquids (absorbing materials) and as well as in proximity to animals and the human body.
    - Problems in the presence of metals (reflecting/detuning materials) and when attached to metal surfaces if not specifically designed for this kind of usage.
    - Smaller memory sizes in comparison to passive HF RFID tags.

    BAP and semi-passive UHF EPC Gen 2 RFID tags – Common advantages in comparison with passive UHF Gen 2 RFID tags:
    - They offer longer read ranges (BAP tags, few dozens of meters).
    - The battery power helps with liquids.
    - Extra sensors (semi-passive RFID tags).

    BAP and semi-passive UHF EPC Gen 2 RFID tags – Common disadvantages in comparison with Passive UHF Gen 2 RFID tags:
    - Higher costs than “comparable” passive technologies.
    - The battery can limit their usage in some extreme environmental conditions.

    Thanks to their common characteristics and the wide variety of models designed for specific applications, passive UHF tags are those that can be used in the largest range of applications: retail, pharmaceutical item tracking, books and media management and above all, warehouse management, industrial supply chains and many other applications where long read ranges, resistance to harsh environments and low costs are required.

    UHF BAP tags are a good choice when longer read ranger are needed or when the presence of liquids can make it difficult to use passive UHF tags.

    Semi-passive UHF tags are used when there is a need for extra sensors in order to measure environmental condition parameters. Their most common application is for temperature monitoring in cold-chain applications.

    Another standard that works in the UHF frequency band is the ISO-18000-6b. It is falling into disuse in favor of Gen 2 standard because of the way the memory is organized. ISO-18000-6b RFID tags are not suitable for tracking goods moving from one company to another with high speed read. Nevertheless, they continue to be used in several closed-loop applications where UHF read ranges and great quantity of user memory are required.

    Another RFID standard in the UHF frequency band is the ISO-18000-7, an active RFID protocol that works at 433 MHz that is also promoted by the DASH7 Alliance, a consortium that is working to create a new wireless sensor networking technology that has evolved from a combination of existing radio-frequency identification and sensing technologies.

    ISO-18000-7 active RFID tags – Common advantages:
    - Global functioning.
    - Thanks to their working frequency, they have less problems with metals and liquids in comparison to UHF passive RFID tags.
    - Long read ranges.
    - Low battery consumption for longer durability.

    ISO-18000-7 active RFID tags – Common disadvantages:
    - As all tags with a battery, ISO-18000-7 RFID tags have higher maintenance costs than “comparable” passive technologies.
    - The battery can limit their usage in some extreme environmental conditions.

    Like other active RFID tags that work at higher frequencies (usually at 2.45 GHz and 5.8 GHz) and are based on proprietary protocols, ISO 18000-7 RFID tags are used in indoor and outdoor Real Time Location Systems, in applications where long read ranges are required and where measurements of environmental conditions have to be made.
     
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    Criminelen niet bang voor kentekencamera's
     
     
    Criminelen hebben weinig te vrezen van de honderden slimme camera's van de politie die kentekens kunnen scannen van auto's.
    De camera's herkennen de kentekens van auto's van criminelen en geven die door aan de politie. Regelmatig worden zo gezochte criminelen gesignaleerd door de camera's, maar de politie laat ze meestal gewoon doorrijden, blijkt uit onderzoek in opdracht van het WODC (.pdf), het Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek- en Documentatiecentrum van het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie.
     
    Geen bewijs
    Justitie gebruikt de opnames van de camera's niet als bewijs. Wel is een aantal criminelen gepakt, dankzij de zogenoemde ANPR-camera's. Maar dat kwam omdat de politie op de beelden kon zien in welke richting de verdachten waren gevlucht, blijkt uit het onderzoek.
     
    Te veel informatie
    Een bijkomend probleem voor de politie is dat er veel te veel informatie wordt verzameld door de ANPR-camera's. Te veel om op alle signaleringen van verdachte kentekens te reageren. Zo werd in 2009 in Rotterdam Rijnmond in 60% van de gevallen niets gedaan met meldingen van de camera's. Het korps kreeg in dat jaar in totaal 4 miljoen meldingen, zo'n 10.000 meldingen per dag.
     
    Innen van boetes
    Toch is het niet zo dat de ANPR-camera's tandeloze tijgers zijn. Vooral bestuurders met openstaande boetes of belastingschuld moeten oppassen voor de camera's, want daar gaat de politie wel achteraan. Zo schrijven de onderzoekers in het rapport 'Hits en hints': "op dit moment wordt ANPR door de politie vooral gebruikt voor het plukken van laaghangend fruit: het innen van boetes en niet voor het opsporen van criminelen."
     
    Intelligente camera's
    De politie in Nederland beschikt over zo'n 200 ANPR-camera's, de meeste daarvan hangen in de regio Rotterdam-Rijnmond. Daarnaast heeft de KLPD veel surveillanceauto's uitgerust van de kentekenplaatherkenningscamera's.
    Kentekens van auto's van verdachten kunnen in het systeem worden gestopt en de camera's geven een signaal aan de politie als de auto die wordt gezocht voorbijrijdt. Maar er moet dan wel een politieauto beschikbaar zijn om de verdachte auto aan te houden en die is er meestal niet, blijkt uit het WODC-rapport.
     
    Prioriteit geven
    In België zet de politie de ANPR-camera's juist wel in in de strijd tegen inbrekers en overvallers. En met succes. De politie in Turnhout gebruikt in minstens de helft van de strafzaken informatie die afkomstig is van de slimme camera's. Korpschef Roger Leys van de politieregio Turnhout is dan ook zeer enthousiast over de ANPR-camera's als opsporingsinstrument: "de gevangenis in Turnhout zit overvol. We kunnen echt wel zeggen dat dit fundamenteel bijdraagt aan identificatie en opsporing van daders."
     
    Vaker inzetten
    De Raad van Korpschefs zegt in een reactie dat de politie de camera's wel "breder inzet dan alleen voor het innen van openstaande verkeerboetes." Maar ze erkent dat het middel nog intensiever kan worden ingezet tegen criminelen. "Er is sprake van een gestage groei van expertise over en gebruik van het middel", schrijft de politie in een reactie aan het RTL Nieuws.
     
    Lees meer...
    Chip in kenteken: geen ontkomen meer aan
     
    De Nederlandse overheid gaat onze kentekenplaten massaal chippen. Daar lijkt geen ontkomen meer aan. Eind vorig jaar leurde een VVD’er al met dit idee, en nu komt ook de RAI Vereniging met een advies aan minister Schultz om de RFID-chip op grootschalige wijze te implementeren in auto’s. Een ultiem middel om totaalcontrole op de weg te verkrijgen in de strijd tegen benzine- en autodiefstal.
    De chip van het type RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) leent zich goed om op afstand op een simpele manier te worden uitgelezen. Elke chip in het kenteken krijgt een unieke code die, samen met de cijfer/lettercombinatie op de plaat, voor een unieke identiteit zorgt. Alsnog fraudegevoel door middel van jatten zegt u? Ook daar hebben ze wat op gevonden. Iedereen krijgt namelijk nog een klein ‘kenteken’ achter de voorruit, dat ook weer voorzien is van een RFID-chip. Als dit plan er komt moeten we dus verplicht ZO’N STICKER opplakken.

    Agenten en bijvoorbeeld pomphouders kunnen op een afstand van ongeveer 20 meter de chip uitlezen met een scanner (á duizend euro) en zien dus direct wat voor vlees ze in de kuip hebben: staat de auto als gestolen geregistreerd & kloppen de kentekengegevens wel of niet.

    Stichting Aanpak Voertuigcriminaliteit vermoedt dat er dankzij het chipkenteken honderden auto’s minder verdwijnen, omdat de omgekatte exemplaren direct door de mand vallen bij een controle. Tenzij ook de voorruit met het mini-kenteken wordt overgezet natuurlijk. Of die RFID-chip wordt gekraakt & vervalst. Want echt waterdicht zijn systemen van de overheid in combinatie met chiptechnologie nou ook weer niet.

    Wie denkt dat dit plan onhaalbaar is heeft het mis. Een collectief gevormd door de RAI Vereniging, RDW, ANWB, BOVAG, het Korps landelijke politiediensten, openbaar ministerie en de producenten van nummerborden hebben allen hun zin gezet op het chippen van kentekenplaten. Die semi-digitale gele plaat komt er dus gewoon. Of u dat nou wil of niet.

    Het invoeren van de chipkentekens zou 17 miljoen euro kosten, en een besparing van 70 miljoen euro voor het bedrijfsleven alsook de overheid moeten opleveren. En we zijn allemaal weer een stukje zichtbaarder op de overheidsradar. Maar aan de andere kant: brandstofstelende mafketels wordt het zo een stuk moeilijker gemaakt. (via Telegraaf)
     
     
    Lees meer...
    'Kentekens moeten antimisdaadchip krijgen'
    25 mei 2012 10:14
    Alle kentekenplaten in het Nederlandse wagenpark moeten een op afstand uitleesbare chip krijgen. Dit om onder meer ontduiking van de motorrijtuigenbelasting en benzinediefstal tegen te gaan. Dat staat in een advies van de RAI Vereniging.
     
    Woordvoerder Harald Bresser zegt vandaag dat onder meer de RDW, het Openbaar Ministerie, het KLPD, de ANWB en deBovag hebben meegewerkt aan het advies. De zogenoemde RFID-chips zouden in de kentekens komen en in een derde 'minikenteken' in een vignet achter de voorruit. De chip bevat de numerieke code die nu al op de kentekenplaten staan. Deze code verschaft de auto een digitale identiteit, aldus Bresser.
     
    Op 20 meter uit te lezen
    Volgens RAI Vereniging is de chip op ongeveer 20 meter afstand uit te lezen, wat het werk van de politie gemakkelijker maakt. De chip is specifiek bedoeld om ontduiking van de motorrijtuigenbelasting, benzinediefstal en voertuigdiefstal tegen te gaan. De chip kan echter ook worden gebruikt voor andere opsporingsdoeleinden, al is dat volgens de bedenkers niet de insteek.
     
    Haalbaar en betaalbaar?
    Het ministerie van Infrastructuur en Milieu heeft het rapport donderdag ontvangen en gaat het nu bestuderen, samen met het ministerie van Veiligheid en Justitie. “We kijken onder meer of het invoeren van een chip technisch haalbaar is en of het betaalbaar is”, zegt een woordvoerster. Het departement wacht ook nog op een advies van onderzoeksinstituut TNO over het eventueel invoeren van plastic nummerborden. Dat wordt op korte termijn verwacht. Rond de zomer zal minister Schultz van Haegen dan reageren op beide rapporten.
     
    Lees meer...
    School gaat leerlingen via RFID-chip volgen
    27 mei 2012
     
    Een Amerikaans schooldistrict is van plan om leerlingen via een RFID-chip in hun studentenkaart te volgen, om zo nauwkeuriger het aantal leerlingen te kunnen tellen. Volgens schoolfunctionarissen helpt dit bij het beter in kaart brengen van de leerlingenopkomst, wat deels voor het budget verantwoordelijk is dat de scholen van de overheid krijgen. In eerste instantie wordt er bij twee scholen gestart. Als de test een succes is, zal die onder alle scholen in het Northside Independent School District worden uitgerold, wat betekent dat zo'n 100.000 leerlingen te volgen zijn.

    "We willen de technologische mogelijkheden benutten om scholen veiliger te maken, zodat we te allen tijde weten waar onze leerlingen zich op school bevinden, en om de inkomsten te laten toenemen", aldus woordvoerder Pascual Gonzalez. "Ouders verwachten dat we altijd weten waar hun kinderen zijn, en deze technologie helpt ons daarmee."

    Kosten
    De chiplezers op de scholen en in de schoolbussen kunnen de locatie van een leerling bepalen, maar zouden ze niet kunnen volgen zodra ze het schoolterrein verlaten. Daarnaast zou alleen geautoriseerd personeel toegang tot de informatie hebben.

    De kaarten gaan zo'n 10 euro per leerling kosten. Het opstarten van het pilotprogramma kost 420.000 euro en nog eens 100.000 euro per jaar om te onderhouden. Aangezien het schooldistrict 140.000 euro per dag misloopt door afwezige kinderen, zou het programma zichzelf moeten terugbetalen.
     
    Lees meer...
     
    Lavaur. "Pouvoir et contrôle des individus"
     
     
     
     
    Une projection-débat avec PMO (Pièces et main-d'œuvre) se déroulera le mercredi 4 janvier à 20 h 30 à la Halle aux Grains de Lavaur. Le progrès de la société industrielle c'est la croissance, une croissance qui menace les équilibres écologiques encore existants.
     
    Il s'agit dès lors pour la gouvernance de trouver les moyens de rendre acceptables les nuisances du développement. Parmi les dispositifs disponibles pour y parvenir, tout l'arsenal de la société de contrainte. « L'observatoire de l'évolution » et l'association « Et si on en parlait » présentent: « Comment s'opposer au contrôle des individus par le pouvoir ?»
    Ce qu'on nomme la crise (et qui n'est que le dépassement des limites humainement raisonnables de la croissance industrielle) impose à la gouvernance de disposer de moyens toujours plus sophistiqués de contrôle du vivant et des populations ; d'où la nécessité de la société de contrainte
     
    Projection de « RFID : la police totale » un film de 28 minutes contre la tyrannie technologique et l'avènement de la société de contrainte. Quant à la contrainte, il ne faut entendre par là ni plus ni moins ce que le Robert et le Dictionnaire étymologique du français en disent.
     
    Nous ne jouons pas sur les mots. Contrainte, nom féminin dérivé au XIIe siècle du verbe contraindre pour signifier 1) une violence exercée contre quelqu'un, une entrave à la liberté d'action. 2) Une règle sociale, morale, obligatoire. Le mot vient d'une racine Indo-européenne *streig- « serrer », d'où stringere en latin, strictus, constringere « lier étroitement ensemble » ; constrictio « resserrement » et constrictius, qui resserre, tel le boa constrictor. C'est cela. C'est exactement cela.
     
    Serrer, resserrer, lier étroitement en un filet constricteur. En vain aurions-nous cherché un mot plus apte à nommer les nouveaux modes d'organisation de l'ordre public.
     
    Lees meer...
    press release
    Jan. 25, 2012, 8:30 a.m. EST
     
    RFID HUMAN
     
    VeriTeQ Acquisition Corporation's VeriChip Technology Is the Original Universal Patient Identifier to Address National Need for Rapid, Accurate Access to Critical Patient Data
    Cleared by FDA in 2004, the VeriChip RFID Implantable Microchip Is Guaranteed to Always Be with a Patient to Securely Identify the Patient and Their Personal Medical Information
     

     

     

            DELRAY BEACH, Fla., Jan 25, 2012 (BUSINESS WIRE) -- --Wall Street Journal Article HighlightsNeed for Patients to Have Unique ID Number for Medical Records
     
    VeriTeQ Acquisition Corporation ("VeriTeQ"), a leader in implantable, radio frequency identification ("RFID") for humans and animals, and Connectyx Technologies Holdings Group, Inc. ("Connectyx") (CTYX.PK) announced today the companies offer best-of-breed solutions for emergency access to rapid, accurate patient data that address the need for universal patient identifiers (UPIs) and patient-controlled personal health records.
     
    The purpose of a UPI is to uniquely and properly identify a patient for appropriate medical care. With its VeriChip, a radio frequency identification (RFID) implantable microchip, VeriTeQ provides the first and only solution for an opt-in UPI that is guaranteed to always be with a patient. The FDA-cleared VeriChip is a passive RFID microchip the size of a grain of rice that stores a 16-digit number and is implanted just underneath the skin. When a proprietary handheld reader is passed over the area where the microchip is implanted, the 16-digit number is displayed on the reader, and can then be used to access a secure, web-based personal health record.
     
    Advocates of UPIs reason that the unique identification numbers can link patient information across multiple electronic medical records systems; enhance patient control and privacy over their information; improve the speed and quality of medical treatment; reduce medical errors by properly identifying patients and their medical data; decrease medical identity theft; and, ultimately, lower healthcare costs. In fact, preventable medical errors are a real problem in the U.S. In 2000, 2001 and 2002, an average of 195,000 people died due to potentially preventable, in-hospital medical errors according to a 2004 study of 37 million patient records released by HealthGrades. The VeriChip quickly and accurately identifies a patient and their health records, whether in a physician's office or an emergency situation, to help improve care and decrease healthcare costs.
     
    For individuals who choose to opt out of VeriChip but endorse the value of patient-controlled personal health records, VeriTeQ will be able to offer alternate methods of emergency access to a personal health record through its planned merger with Connectyx Technologies. This week, VeriTeQ announced it signed a Letter of Intent to merge with Connectyx Technologies Holdings Group, Inc. and its wholly owned subsidiary, Connectyx Technologies Corp. the manufacturer and distributor of the MedFlash(R), an innovative Personal Health and Wellness Management System (ePHM) designed for maintaining personal health records.
     
    MedFlash was launched in 2007 and has thousands of active members across the U.S. MedFlash is sold by leading membership organizations and retail outlets, including portions of national drug store and grocery store chains. MedFlash has multiple methods of emergency access to a member's personal health record, including a toll-free number, telemedicine, smart phone access, internet access, USB flash drive access, and Quick Response codes.
     
    "For many years, it has been apparent that the archaic process of relying on paper-based healthcare records needed to evolve to the digital world to allow for faster access to patient data and more informed treatment decisions," stated Scott R. Silverman, Chairman and CEO of VeriTeQ. "Now, as different electronic medical records systems are put into place within physicians' offices and healthcare systems, we believe the call for a UPI is imperative."
     
    Silverman continued, "Patients can also serve an important role in managing their healthcare through the use of personal health records. We provide them with the greatest security and peace of mind through our VeriChip, which is always guaranteed to be with a patient and provides the utmost in privacy. Through our planned merger with Connectyx, we will also provide flexibility to individuals through MedFlash, which enables people to choose which method of personal health record access is right for them."
     
    According to a California Healthcare Foundation report, "Consumers and Health Information Technology: A National Survey," a majority of respondents said they are concerned with the privacy of their personal medical records. However, those already using personal health records are slightly less concerned. In fact, 63 percent of personal health record users are concerned generally about the privacy of their medical records, but fewer than half say they worry about the privacy of the information in their personal health record.
     
    Upon consummation of VeriTeQ's merger with Connectyx, the company will be renamed VeriTeQ Corporation and will continue to trade on the OTC Pink market, under the new ticker symbol "VTEQ."
     
    About VeriTeQ
    VeriTeQ develops and markets innovative, implantable RFID technologies for humans and animals including sensor applications. VeriChip is the first human-implantable passive RFID microchip cleared for medical use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. On January 12, 2012, VeriTeQ announced it acquired the VeriChip implantable microchip and related technologies, and Health Link personal health record from PositiveID Corporation /quotes/zigman/6472889/quotes/nls/psid PSID -8.54% . PositiveID has retained a 10 percent ownership interest in VeriTeQ. For more information on VeriTeQ, please call 561-805-8011.
    About Connectyx Technologies
    Connectyx Technologies provides unique products for the healthcare market including MedFlash(R), the electronic Personal Health Manager (ePHM). The MedFlash(R) PHM is an easy to use Personal Health and Lifestyle Manager that is accessible using a powerful web portal suite. The MedFlash(R) PHM also features a 24/7/365 call center, a USB flash drive and our smartphone applications with Scan code capability. The MedFlash(R) PHM provides member benefits including instant access to your Emergency Medical Profile and Personal Health Record in the event of an accident or a medical emergency. Whether traveling, at work, or at home, First Responders have an invaluable advantage when they have access to this time critical information. Far more than just an emergency flash drive, the MedFlash(R) PHM can be accessed on any computer, securely and with complete privacy. There are also lifestyle and wellness features that provide significant health benefits to members and risk mitigation for employers and insurers alike. Connectyx products are developed with the needs of patients, families, doctors and First Responders in mind. For more information, please visit our websites at: www.connectyx.com , www.phrtoday.com and www.medflash.com.
     
    Safe Harbor Act: This communication includes forward-looking statements made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995 that involves risks and uncertainties including, but not limited to, the impact of competitive products, the ability to meet customer demand, the ability to manage growth, acquisitions of technology, equipment, or human resources, the effect of economic business conditions, and the ability to attract and retain skilled personnel. The Company is not obligated to revise or update any forward-looking statements in order to reflect events or circumstances that may arise after the date of this communication.
     
    SOURCE: VeriTeQ Acquisition Corporation
    Lees meer...
    Where to mate? 1984 please.
     
      - Travis Bickle (Robert De Niro), Taxi Driver 1976
    The use of surveillance cameras in taxis that record both sound and images hit the headlines last week, when it emerged that the City Council of the historic English city of Oxford was making them compulsory for all local private hire vehicles [1]. Many commentators were shocked by the depths to which the surveillance society had now stooped but few spotted that this phenomenon has been around for over a decade, and not just in the UK. CCTV in taxis is a worldwide development. The globalised surveillance industrial complex offers one-solution-fits-all products regardless of regional differences or actual need. Wherever taxi cameras have been introduced the measure has courted controversy and time and time again privacy laws around the world have seemingly been unable to restrain this addition to the surveillance panoply. It is through such incremental steps that societal values have and continue to be eroded. Driving a taxi undoubtedly has risks, particularly at night with an alcohol fuelled clientèle, but is there actual evidence that cameras can significantly improve driver safety? Even if cameras were effective, are they truly acceptable? Are there not other measures that could be introduced which would have less impact on the freedoms of taxi passengers?
     
    Background
    Amazingly the first city to introduce compulsory taxi cameras was not in the UK. That dubious accolade goes to Perth in Australia, where a licensing condition was introduced from mid December 1997, after an 18 month decision making, testing and development process. Other countries with cities that have compulsory taxi cameras include Canada, Norway, China, the United States, Holland and New Zealand.
     
    Bolton's brave experiment
    In the UK cameras were trialled in Bolton in 2001 [2] - cameras, recording images and sound, were fitted to ten taxis for six weeks. The trial was hailed a success because no incidents occurred. No control group was used. No independent study was produced. It was simply hailed a success by Bolton Council, the taxi drivers and the security industry firms behind the trial [3]. One of the reasons given for driver support was the hope that it would lead to cheaper insurance premiums [4]. In 2002 the then MP for Bolton South East, Dr Brian Iddon raised the trial in the House of Commons [5], calling it a "brave experiment" and asking Home Office Minister John Denham whether he agreed it should be spread throughout the country. And so Bolton became the poster city for taxi CCTV in the UK.

    On the back of the Bolton success myth, Chubb, the company whose CabWatch system had been used, touted their wares to Leicester and Cambridge City Councils who ran their own trials. As with Bolton, Chubb's system relayed sound and images to a remote video response centre. Over the next few years a string of UK councils began considering cameras as a condition of license for taxis and private hire vehicles.

    It is now commonplace for taxis to be equipped with CCTV cameras throughout the UK.
     
    Southampton Court Challenge
    In the UK Parliament in July 2007 [6] it was reported that the Southampton Safe City Partnership were sponsoring CCTV in taxi cabs. In November 2010 a driver, Keith May, who runs taxi firm K & K Hire, began legal action in the Southampton Magistrates' Court against the City Council's imposition of a condition requiring the installation of a taxi camera in one of his licensed hackney carriages. In April 2011 the court found in May's favour [7]. Southampton City Council are now appealing that decision [8]. A month after the court decision, taxi drivers held a demo in Southampton [9] to protest against the council's compulsory camera requirement. But before defenders of passengers' freedoms get too excited about the Southampton taxi drivers' stand, it is worth listening to a recent edition of the BBC Radio 4 programme 'You and Yours' [10], on which May clarified his position. May said:
    I'm not against CCTV, I'm not against CCTV at all. I'm against the conditions that this council, Southampton Council Licensing Office has imposed on us. [...] The problem we've got in Southampton is that the CCTV operates in a way that it is on 24/7, you can never turn it off, the driver's got not control of it whatsoever, so every single passenger that gets in a licensed vehicle in Southampton - their conversation's being recorded no matter whether they've done anything wrong or not. [...] What about, the taxi drivers in Southampton, private hires and taxis, majority of those vehicles gets used privately as well. The drivers own those vehicles, [?], what happens when they're taking their children down to the beach with their wife on a weekend. Why should that conversation be getting recorded?
    In other words May is saying that in his view surveilling passengers is okay as long as the driver has control over it, but surveilling a taxi driver's family is wrong. And it is worth mentioning that the court case challenged the cameras as a licensing requirement, not the right or wrong of the cameras themselves. At time of writing the judgment is not publicly available.
     
    It's all right we won't look at the footage, honest
    The response from Southampton City Council is similar to the response from licensing authorities throughout the UK and across the globe - passengers have nothing to worry about because the sound and images are encrypted and no-one's going to access them unless there's an incident. The kit being used is an example of what is often called privacy by design (PbD) or a privacy enhancing technology (PET). Aside from the fact that encryption is not as secure as many would have us believe, surely there is more at stake here? We shall return to privacy by design below.
    To understand how we got to this point let's travel back to the 1990s and look at how the taxi CCTV craze first began.
     
    Perth goes on camera
    As stated above it was in Australia that taxi compulsory CCTV was first introduced. In Perth, following a number of attacks on taxi drivers, a safety summit was held in February 1996. According to a report by Dr. Ian Radbone of the University of South Australia [11] a number of solutions were discussed and: "While the installation of a camera was not necessarily considered the most effective option, it was broadly supported because of its immediate feasibility and non-intrusiveness."
    In the 1990s the Perth cameras did not record sound.

    Radbone's February 1998 report states:

    The cameras have been compulsory for two months. What's the evidence of effectiveness so far? The TIB [Taxi Industry Board] data base has recorded a drop in reported incidents but the numbers are too small to be statistically significant at this stage.

    A November 2000 report by the Australian Institute of Criminology, entitled 'Preventing Assaults on Taxi Drivers in Australia' [12] states:

    Solid state digital technology was chosen for Perth taxis where cameras have been mandatory since December 1997; these resulted in a 60 per cent reduction in attacks on drivers within a year after introduction (Pflaum 1999).

    Note that the 60 percent reduction figure is cited as coming from one "Pflaum" in 1999. Upon closer investigation it transpires that Pflaum is a taxi driver in Germany who, in 1999, wrote an article [13] for a German Taxi Journal. In this article he gave no source or background to the 60 percent figure. Pflaum wrote:

    In Perth, Australia, where camera surveillance was made mandatory for taxicabs, attacks against cab drivers and other major troubles were reduced by 60% one year after the introduction.
    If the cameras in Perth really were such a magic bullet one has to wonder why earlier this year it was announced that the Western Australian government is set to upgrade these cameras.
     
    The Upgrade cycle
    In January 2011 it was announced that $8 million (Australian dollars) would be spent to upgrade the cameras in Perth's taxi fleet and for the first time record sound as well as images. In addition four cameras will now be fitted to each taxi, two inside and two outside. The new cameras will record continuously. The Western Australian Taxi Camera Surveillance Unit (TCSU) standard 2011 [14] states:
    The TCSU shall include at least two internally mounted cameras and two externally mounted cameras.

    The reason given by the Government of Western Australia Department of Transport [15] for the camera upgrades is that the cameras are "generally technologically outdated" and they state:

    As a result, when a crime occurs inside or outside a taxi, these existing models often do not provide the evidence necessary to prosecute the offender. A new standard is urgently needed to help make the taxi industry a safe working environment for taxi drivers and a safe transport service for passengers.
    When it is time to upgrade suddenly no mention is made of magical decreases in crime, instead action must be taken, we are told, to make taxis a safe place.
     
    Alternatives to cameras - partitions
    One alternative to cameras is the use of a partition between the driver and the passengers. Such partitions have long been a feature of the iconic London black taxi or Hackney Carriage.

    One female driver told Taxi Today Monthly in 2009 [16]:

    I have always driven a London Taxi because I value the security and safety it provides. The central partition is crucial to the job as it provides both added peace of mind and protection.
    ('Safety first for female drivers', Taxi Today Monthly, January 2009)

    Partitions can also be fitted to other vehicle types and are sometimes known as safety screens or safety shields.

    A 1999 report 'The Effectiveness of Taxi Partitions: The Baltimore Case' [17], prepared for The Southeastern Transportation Center University of Tennessee Knoxville found:

    Thus far it has been determined that shields in Baltimore taxis significantly reduce assaults on taxi drivers. Furthermore, shields are the primary reason for reduced assaults compared to other explanations such as reduced crime, drug arrests, and population.

    The shield study looked at shield implementation in Baltimore from 1991 to 1997 and included a control study. Compare this study protocol to that of the Bolton camera study mentioned above.

    Many studies report that in the United States and other countries there is a perception amongst drivers that safety partitions reduce tips by isolating the driver from the passenger and presenting a physical barrier to communication. In the UK however the partition has been viewed as a welcome addition by drivers and passengers alike. A 1970 Home Office report of the 'Departmental Committee on the London taxicab trade' [18] found:

    A large proportion of fares appreciate the privacy from the driver and the fact that they cannot be inflicted with his unwanted conversation.
    (p197, 'Report of the Departmental Committee on the London taxicab trade', Home Office, 1970)

    More alternatives to cameras
    A January 2007 report of the Taxicab Advisory Group Committee on Driver Safety to the Mayor of the City of Atlanta, Georgia [19] looked at the various alternatives to cameras. It references the comments of one of the authors of the Baltimore partition study, Dr John R. Stone who gave a speech to a 'Taxi Driver Security' conference in Montreal in 1996 [20].

    Stone explained that in 1990 following the murder of a taxi driver, the Montreal Taxi Bureau formed a Round Table group which implemented a number of safety measures including: flashing rear emergency lights and priority for 911 taxi calls, driver training and driver reports of community emergencies, media coverage and rewards for identifying taxi driver assailants, spot police inspections of taxis and passengers, a training video on tips for taxi driver safety.

    Stone told the conference that:

    Between 1990 and 1995 as a result of Round Table efforts, the number of MUC [Montreal Urban Community] taxi robberies fell dramatically by 60% from 187 annual armed robberies to 76. Furthermore, relations between taxi drivers, the police, and the community improved.

    Driving force
    So why, despite the alternatives that have less impact on the freedoms of passengers and drivers, have so many cities opted for cameras?

    A 2009 report of the Canadian 'Surveillance Camera Awareness Network (SCAN)' [21] looked at the introduction of cameras in taxis in Ottawa, Canada. The report states:

    Cab camera companies are entrepreneurial and in addition to cameras must sell the very idea of surveillance. This may require making claims regarding the deterrent effect of cab cameras, as well as the value of the footage in prosecuting crimes.
    (p7 'Camera Surveillance in Ottawa Taxicab', 'A Report on Camera Surveillance in Canada Part Two', 2009)

    The SCAN report points out that independent studies that support camera companies claims are scarce, and that:

    Our two reports for the Surveillance Camera Awareness Network demonstrate that cameras and other new surveillance measures tend to be implemented without appropriate consultation or adequate independent evaluation, which is demonstrated by the case of cab camera implementation in Ottawa.
    (p93 'Conclusion', 'A Report on Camera Surveillance in Canada Part Two', 2009)
    Surely in the face of the shortage of independent studies supporting the camera companies' claims and the multitude of alternatives that have less impact on the freedoms of drivers and passengers this is an easy win for privacy and data protection commissioners around the world? Maybe, but only to a point.
     
    Weakness of privacy laws
    In New Zealand earlier this year the Transport Agency (NZTA) sought guidance [22] from the Office of the Privacy Commissioner (OPC) following the introduction of compulsory camera Rule [23] for all taxis in major population areas. The NZTA published a letter which states:
    The OPC says it has serious concerns about the privacy implications of audio recording in taxis and plans to keep a watching brief on any moves by taxi organisations to introduce it. In addition the OPC asks that any taxi organisation planning to introduce audio recordings notify the Office of the plans so that it can monitor its use by the industry.
    (Audio recording of passengers in taxis (Letter from the NZTA) - 30/6/2011)

    In Canada the 2003/4 Annual Report [24] of the Office of the Information and Privacy Commissioner (OIPC) under "issues the OIPC has provided advice or comments on over the past year" states:

    The Motor Carrier Commission's proposal to place digital videocameras in taxi cabs in the Lower Mainland (the Information and Privacy Commissioner stated that he did not support the proposal for privacy reasons)

    On 16th November 2011 a statement from the Data Commissioner of Ireland was read on a talk radio show [25] which said they had concerns "about the proportionality and justification for installing CCTV cameras in taxis, taking account of the legitimate privacy expectations of vehicle users".

    Perhaps the strongest response to taxi cameras has come from Nevada in the United States, where in 2004 the Nevada Taxi Cab Authority introduced a regulation requiring cameras in taxis. The Taxi Cab Authority were also considering the activation of the recording systems in the event of a G-force event (a G-force event is that which alters the vehicle's inertia to such a degree that a trigger is activated) .

    When the American Civil Liberties Union opposed the regulation it was not adopted pending review. In October 2005 the Attorney General of Nevada issued an opinion [26] on the constitutional implications of recording images and sound using taxi cameras. The twelve page opinion explores whether taxi cameras that record sound and images are a breach of United States Fourth Amendment. The Attorney General concludes:

    The adoption of revised regulations which limit any video and audio recording of the camera to (1) the entry and exit of the passenger, (2) activation, when the equipment is activated by a panic button, and (3) minimal recording in the event of a G-force event, would be a limited governmental intrusion which would likely be found by a court to not violate the passengers Fourth Amendment privacy rights.

    In September 2006 a revised regulation [27] was adopted [28] that took into account the Attorney General's recommendations. The regulation still requires the compulsory introduction of taxi cameras but the camera is only activated as passengers get in or out of the taxi and when a panic button is activated by the driver. When the camera is activated, it can record still images or video and may record sound but not as a compulsory requirement.

    In the UK campaign group Big Brother Watch has launched a complaint [29] with the Information Commissioners Office (ICO) with regard to the Oxford taxi CCTV scheme. To date the ICO has not taken a strong stand on surveillance issues as the Data Protection Act that supposedly governs camera surveillance in the UK is riddled with exemptions when freedoms are removed for the stated purpose of "crime prevention", regardless of whether any evidence exists to prove the surveillance works.

    The campaign group Justice in their recent report 'Freedom from Suspicion' [30] point out that it was an English Common Law principle, laid out in Lord Camden's speech in the 1705 judgment in Entick v Carrington, upholding the rights of property owners against unlawful searches by the executive that became the basis for the guarantees of the Fourth Amendment to the US Constitution. The English Common Law still exists but alas no-one seems to remember it.

    One confusion for privacy commissioners has been the fact that recordings from taxi cameras are encrypted and only accessed by law enforcement or council officials when an incident occurs. This is the so-called "principle" of privacy by design which some commissioners have positively encouraged.
     
    Privacy by design
    In her book 'Privacy by Design ? take the challenge' [31] the Information and Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Canada, Dr Ann Cavoukian writes:
    The use of this type of privacy-enhancing technology would thus allow for video surveillance to be conducted without the usual concerns associated with this type of surveillance. For the great majority of the surveillance footage, there would be absolutely no access or viewing of any personally identifiable information, and no unauthorized activities, such as viewing out of curiosity or "leering," would be possible. Therefore, this privacy-enhancing technology would enable both the use of video surveillance cameras and privacy to co-exist, side by side - without forfeiting one for the other: positive-sum, not zero-sum.

    Data Protection expert Chris Pounder of Amberhawk Training [32] sums up privacy by design as follows:

    Even though the process is protective of privacy one has arrived at a position that can be rewritten in a more familiar guise: "If you have nothing to hide, you have nothing to fear".

    Societal values beyond privacy
    Taxi cameras are part of a growing "just in case" mentality that treats everyone as suspects. This issue goes beyond privacy laws or the lack thereof. The principle of innocent until proven guilty is an important cornerstone of our society and a healthy society depends on the law-abiding majority being respected and trusted as they go about their daily lives.

    All around us the surveillance state is growing almost invisibly - unchecked by politicians and lawmakers who either want control or believe surveillance is universally loved, and driven by a surveillance industrial complex, ready to turn every social ill into a money making scheme. Almost every part of our society is tainted by an obsessive focus on crime and the security industry is all too willing to encourage the development of a crime-based economy.

    Those that still cherish freedom must speak out. Just be careful what you say if you're in the back of a taxi.

    Endnotes:

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    Boetes geïnd
     
    Apeldoorn, 24-12-2011 •  In de afgelopen week heeft de politie in Apeldoorn extra ingezet op het innen van openstaande boetes en vonnissen. Hierbij is ook een ANPR-voertuig ingezet, die kentekenplaten scant. In totaal is voor ruim 7.000 euro aan boetes geïnd. De ANPR-auto is zowel ingezet op wegen binnen Apeldoorn, als op de snelweg A1. Er zijn bijna 13.000 kentekens gescand. In totaal hebben 21 mensen openstaande boetes betaald, met een totaalbedrag van 7230 euro. Hiermee voorkwamen mensen dat hun auto in beslag genomen werd, of zij zelf ingesloten werden. Wat men over het algemeen vlak voor de feestdagen zeker niet wil. Wanbetalers die niet betalen of zich niet melden, worden actief door de politie opgespoord. De politie organiseert regelmatig soortgelijke acties om openstaande vonnissen te innen.
     
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